PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF UNDERGROUND WATER IN ALAAGO-ALAPOTI AREAS OGUN STATE, SOUTH WESTERN NIGERIA

0
140
 TABLE OF CONTENTS 
Title i
Certification ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgement iv
Abstract v
Table of Contents vi
List of Tables vii
List of Figures vii

CHAPTER ONE

  1. General Statement                                                                                        1
    1. Aims and objectives of the study aera                                                         2
    1. Location and Accessibility                                                                           2
    1. Drainage                                                                                                       4
    1. Climate                                                                                                         5
    1. Vegetation and Topography                                                                         6
    1. Literature review                                                                                          6

CHAPTER TWO

CHAPTER THREE

3.16 Calculation for Residual Sodium Bi-carbonate                                                  17

3.15 Calculation for Soluble Sodium Percentage (SSP)                                            18

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Result and Discussion                                                                                        29
    • Result                                                                                                                  29
    • Discussion                                                                                                          29
    • Physical Asessment                                                                                            29
    • Chemical Assessment                                                                                         34
CHAPTER FIVE 
5.0 Conclusion36
5.1 Recommendation37
5.2 Reference38 – 41

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. Location and Accessibility of Alaago-Alapoti area of Ogun State                        3

Figure 2. Drainage of Alaago-Alapoti area of Ogun State                                                     4

Figure 3. Stratigraphy Map of Eastern Dahomey Basin                                                         8

Figure 4. Comparison of calcium and sodium in Alaago-Alapoti area with SON and WHO standard                                                                                                                        31

Figure 5.Bar chart showing the comparison between the concentration of Magnesium, Potassium and Iron in Alaago-Alapoti with SON AND WHO standard.                              32

Figure 6. Bar chart of Chloride and Bicarbonate in Alaago-Alapoti water compared with that of SON and WHO standard.                                                                                   33

LIST OF TABLES

Table 4.1. Physical parameters of H20 of the study                                                               20

Table 4.2: Chemical parameters (cationic and anionic) of the H20                                       20

Table 4.3: Comparison of Physico-chemical parameters of Alaagowith WHO and SON standard                                                                                                                                  21

Table 4.4: Parameters from water samples in Alaago area with regard to irrigation water    22

Table 4.7: Physical parameters of H20 of the study Alapoti area                                           24

Table 4.8: Chemical parameters (cationic and anionic) of the H20 Alapoti area                   25

Table 4.9: Comparison of Physico-chemical parameters of Alaago with WHO and SON standardAlapoti area                                                                                                      26

Table 4.11: Parameters from water samples in Alaago area with regard to irrigation water Alapoti area                                                                                                                                 27-28

CHAPTER ONE

  1. General Statement

Water is the most abundant substance on earth, the principal constituent of all living things and a major force constantly shaping the surface of the earth. It is also a key factor in air- conditioning of the earth for human existence. Water in lesser quantities is present everywhere, in the soil, sub-soil and bedrock; such water is known as Groundwater.

Water quality depends on the local geology as well as human activities such as sewage disposal, industrial waste product and so on. These contaminants have been found to pose health rick all over the world.

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF UNDERGROUND WATER IN ALAAGO-ALAPOTI AREAS OGUN STATE, SOUTH WESTERN NIGERIA