PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF AFRICAN YAM BEAN (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) AND IRISH POTATO (Solanum tuberosum L.) FLOUR BLENDS AND SENSORY EVALUATION OF ITS FLAKES

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ABSTRACT

The physicochemical properties of formulated flakes from African yam bean and Irish potato were evaluated. Protein energy malnutrition is common in developing countries due to high intake in carbohydrate and lipids-Breakfast meal is an essential and relevant meal that needs to be taken to keep the body ready for daily activities. This research evaluated the nutritional components of formulated flakes from blends of African yam bean (AYB) and Irish potato. Six samples were formulated by mixing African yam bean flour (AYB)+Irish Potato flour in the ratio of (100:0, 90:10, 80:20. 70:30) sugar and water. The samples were mixed, conditioned steamed for 10mins and allowed to age at 40c for 12hours, sliced using a stainless steel knife and toasted in an oven at 120±0C for 1hour. Cooled and packaged. The results revealed the following ranges of physical and functional properties, Bulk Density (0.54-0.68g/lml) water absorption capacity (1.22-1.53%) oil absorption capacity (2.12-2.33%), wettability 14.50-37.00 seconds). The proximate composition of the formulated breakfast cereal ranged from 9.00-12.66% for moisture, 59.45 to 67.12% for carbohydrate, 19.67% to 22.44% for protein 2.00 to 3.00% for ash 0.30 to 4.30% for crude fibre and 2.00 to 3.62 for crude fat. the results obtained from the study shows that meal made from African bean and Irish potato has is high protein content and can be used as a low cost nutritive and ready to eat breakfast meal to feed infants and adults.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE                                                                                                             i

CERTIFICATION                                                                                                     ii

DEDICATION                                                                                                           iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                                                                       iv

ABSTRACT                                                                                                               vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                           vii

LIST OF TABLES                                                                                                     ix

LIST OF FIGURES                                                                                                   x

CHAPTER ONE

1.1       Introduction                                                                                                    1

1.2       Statement of problem                                                                                                 4

1.3       Justification of the study                                                                                5

1.4       Objective of the study                                                                                                5

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Cereals and Legumes                                                                                            6

2.2 African Yam Bean                                                                                                7

2.2.1 Potentials of African yam bean                                                                                     9

2.2.2 Chemical composition of African yam bean seeds                                            14

2.2.3 Processing and Utilisation of African yam bean seeds                                      15

2.3 Potato                                                                                                                    16

2.3.1 Description                                                                                                         18

2.3.2 Morphology                                                                                                       19

2.3.3 Utilization                                                                                                          19

2.3.4 Distribution                                                                                                        20

2.3.5 Growing season Area                                                                                         21

2.3.6 Cultivation and harvest                                                                                      22

2.3.7 Health Benefits                                                                                                  23

2.3.8 Digestion                                                                                                            23

2.3.9 Disease Prevention                                                                                             24

2.3.10  Lower Blood Pressure                                                                                   24

2.3.11  Nutrition                                                                                                        24

2.3.12 Nutrients per Serving                                                                                       25

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1 Procurement of Raw Materials                                                                             26

3.2 Processing of Raw Materials                                                                                26

3.2.1 Processing of African Yam Bean Flour                                                             26

3.3 Processing of Irish potato into flour                                                                     28

3.3.1 Product formulation                                                                                           30

3.3.2 Functional properties of the flour                                                                      32

3.3.2.1 Determination of bulk density                                                                        32

3.3.3 Determination of water absorption capacity                                                      33

3.3.4    Water absorption capacity                                                                              33

3.3.5    Oil absorption capacity                                                                                   33

3.3.6 Determination of Wettability                                                                             34

3.3.7    Proximate analyses                                                                                          34

3.3.8    Experiential design and data analysis                                                             38

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1       Proximate composition of African yam bean and Irish potato flour blend    36

4.2       Functional properties of African yam bean and Irish potato flour blend       40

4.3       Sensory evaluation of African yam bean and Irish potato flour blend           43

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 

5.1       Conclusion                                                                                                      46

5.2       Recommendation                                                                                            46

References                                                                                                      47