PHYSIOCHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL OF PACKAGED WATER ANALYSIS SOLD IN OSUN STATE.

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PHYSIOCHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL OF PACKAGED WATER ANALYSIS SOLD IN OSUN STATE.

Water is an essential natural resource required by all living organisms. However among these living organisms,
human beings tend to use water most for the purposes of drinking, personal, domestic, industrial and recreational uses (Igbeneghu and Lamikanra 2014). Nigeria like other developing nations is faced with problems of potable water supply for its estimated 160 million citizens (Adesiji 2013). As a result of this and other factors, packaged
drinking water has been used as alternative drinking water source (Oyedeji et al. 2010). Packaged drinking water is defined as water packaged in cans, plastic sachets and pouches for the main purpose of consumption
(Warburton 1993). It is mostly common in low socio economic countries has means of salvaging scarce potable,safe water and to generate income, yet, various studies have shown that some packaged drinking water may not be safe for drinking due to presence of pathogens (Ahmed et al. 2013; Obiri-Danso et al. 2003).
According to Oyedeji et al. (2010), water borne diseases are one of the major public health related problems in developing countries like Nigeria. The ever increasing demand, sale and indiscriminate consumption of packaged drinking water in Nigeria, therefore, poses significant public health risks to the citizens especially individuals with compromised immune systems (Mgbakor et al. 2011). Most producers of packaged drinking water in Nigeria obtain their raw water mostly from sources such as local, municipal piped water or well water and therefore, do not follow specified standards due to lack of the appropriate drinking water technology(Oluyege et al. 2014).
Osun State Water Corporation (OSWC), and the Rural Water Environmental Sanitation Agency
(RUWESA) are inadequate for the growing population and at best epileptic in most Osogbo communities(OSWC, 2008). As a consequence of pipe borne water shortage, the Osun State residents depend on water from boreholes, hand-dug wells and water vended in sachets. From a public health perspective,there is a need to ascertain the quality of water accessible to the residents to avoid or reduce incidence of contaminated water-related health hazards. Based on this, the study was undertaken to assess the physical, chemical, and bacteriological properties of of packaged water used by the students residents of Osun State. The study is relevant in assuring whether the quality of the packaged water meet the regulatory standards because portable water is essential to life.

1.2 Problem Statement.
Despite various studies by researchers, there is no information on prevailing pathogens. This study was,therefore, carried out to compile nationally and internationally published articles in order to summarize and compare occurrence of fecal indicator bacteria and potential water borne bacterial pathogens in packaged drinking water sold in Osun state.
So also analyze the physiochemical properties of the packaged water to check if they conform with the standard to ensure their safety.

1.3 Objectives of the Study
The major objective of the study is the physiochemical and microbial analysis of water sold in Osun State.

1.4 Research Questions
(1) what are the various packaged water sold in Osun state?
(2) Is there any physical proof to show they are portable water?
(3) why the need to perform physiochemical and microbial analysis of water sold in Osun state?

1.5 Significance of the study
This study gives a clear insight into the physiochemical and microbial analysis of water sold in Osun state. The findings and recommendations of these research will enlighten consumers on how safe the water samples are and may also help the concerned regulatory bodies on the safety of the water sold in Osun state.

1.6 Scope of the study
This research focuses on the physiochemical and microbial analysis of packaged water sold in Osun state.

1.7 Limitations of the study
This study was conducted on selected samples of water sold in Osun State.

References
Adesiji AR. Microbiological quality of packaged drinking water brands marketed in Minna metropolis, North
Central Nigeria. Nig J Technolog Res. 2013;7(1):1–7.
Ahmed W, Yusuf R, Hasan I, Ashraf W, Goonetilleke A, Toze S, Gardner T. Fecal indicators and bacterial pathogens in bottled water from Dhaka, Bangladesh. Braz J Microbiol. 2013;44(1):97–103. doi: 10.1590/S1517-83822013005000026. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
Igbeneghu OA, Lamikanra A. The bacteriological quality of different brands of bottled water available to consumers in Ile-Ife, south-western Nigeria. BMC Res Notes. 2014;7(1):859. doi: 10.1186/1756-0500-7-859.
[PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
Korzeniewska E, Filipkowska Z, Zarnoch D, Tworus K. Survival of Escherichia coli and Aeromonas hydrophila in non-carbonated mineral water. Polish J Microbiol. 2005;54:35–40. [PubMed]
Mgbakor C, Ojiegbe G, Okonko IO, Odu NN, Alli JA, Nwanze JC, Onoh CC. Bacteriological evaluation of some sachet water on sales in Owerri metropolis, Imo State. Nigeria Mal J Microbiol. 2011;7(4):217–225.
NIS . Nigerian standard for drinking water quality. Microbiological limits. Abuja: Standard Organization of Nigeria; 2007.
Obiri-Danso K, Okore-Hanson A, Jones K. The microbiological quality of drinking water sold on the streets in Kumasi. Ghana Lett Appl Microbiol. 2003;37(4):334–339. doi: 10.1046/j.1472-765X.2003.01403.x. [PubMed]
Oluyege J, Olowomofe T, Abiodun O. Microbial contamination of packaged drinking water in Ado-Ekiti metropolis, south western Nigeria. Am J Res Com. 2014;2(10):231–246.
Oyedeji O, Olutiola P, Moninuola M. Microbiological quality of packaged drinking water brands marketed in Ibadan metropolis and Ile-Ife city in South Western Nigeria. Afr J Micro Res.2010;4(1):096–102.
Venkatesan KD, Balaji M, Victor K. Microbiological analysis of packaged drinking water sold in Chennai. Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2014;3(4):472–476. doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2014.150220143.
Warburton DW. A review of the microbiological quality of bottled water sold in Canada. Part 2. The need for more stringent standards and regulations. Can J Microbiol. 1993;39(2):158–168. doi: 10.1139/m93-022.

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PHYSIOCHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL OF PACKAGED WATER ANALYSIS SOLD IN OSUN STATE.

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