PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ETHNOBOTANICAL SURVEY ON THE PLANTS THAT ARE USED FOR THE TREATMENT OF TYPHOID IWE EGBESI and IWE AHUN (Alstonia congensis and Nauclea latifolia)

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Typhoid fever, a common and sometimes fatal infection of both adults and children that causes bacteremia and inflammatory destruction of the intestine and other organs, is endemic in countries, especially throughout Asia and Africa (Alex 2015). Chloramphenicol has been the treatment of choice for typhoid fever for 40 years, but the widespread emergence of multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi (resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol,  and trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole) has necessitated the search for other therapeutic options (Liam, 2001). Currently ciprofloxacin is the drug of choice in the treatment of enteric fever in Nigeria. Alternatives such as azithromycin and ceftriazone are also recommended (Salada 2015).

Typhoid fever, caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar typhi (S. typhi),has become rare in industrialized countries, yet it remains a major cause of enteric disease in children in developing countries (Salada, 2015), resulting in an estimated incidence of 50 cases per 100,000 persons per year, predominantly in young school-age children [4]. Globally, it is estimated that typhoid accounts for 16 million cases each year, resulting in over 600,000 deaths [5]. Typhoid fever therefore continues to be a public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease is common in developing countries and concomitant with poor public health and low socio economic indices (yarney, 2010). Residents of poor communities lacking good water and sanitation system are those mostly affected. It is estimated that a total of 400,000 cases occur annually in Africa, with an incidence of 50 per 100,000 persons per year (Epidi 2016).

  • In  Sub-Saharan  Africa  invasive nontyphoidal salmonella (NTS) is also a major cause of bacteremia in adults and children; with an estimated occurrence of 175-388 cases per 100,000 in children and 200-7500 cases per 100,000 in HIV infected adults annually. In Nigeria, typhoid fever ranks among the leading 20 causes of outpatient illness, accounting for 0.92 % of hospital admissions (sory, 2009).
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PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ETHNOBOTANICAL SURVEY ON THE PLANTS THAT ARE USED FOR THE TREATMENT OF TYPHOID IWE EGBESI and IWE AHUN (Alstonia congensis and Nauclea latifolia)