PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF OCIMUM BASILICUM USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY – MASS SPECTROMETRY

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ABSTRACT

Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil)is a member of the Lamiaceae family, belonging to the genus Ocimum. It is commonly found in the tropical regions of Africa, Asia, and Pacific Island where it is used both as a culinary and medicinal herb. This research, carried out the phytochemical screening of ethanolic extracts of ocimum basilicum leaves using Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques. The GC-MS analysis identified thirty-six (36) compounds. The compounds consisted of high amounts of Maltol (9.42%) 2-pyrazoline,1isopropyl-5-methyl (9.21%), Quinoline-3-methyl (9.10%)  Pentadecanoic acid (8.84%), Alpha Ergosterol (7.22%), Docosanoic acid (7.15%), Caryophyllene(6.12%), Coumaric acid (5.86%),  and Germacrene D (5.20%). These phytoconstituents possess different biological activities which are possibly responsible for the industrial and pharmacological effects often attributed to Ocimum basilicum. Thus ocimum basilicum is recommeded as a potential therapeutic agent.

TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE PAGE                                                                                                             i

CERTIFICATION                                                                                         ii         

DEDICATION                                                                                               iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                                                             iv

ABSTRACT                                                                                                   vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                               vii

LIST OF TABLES                                                                                         x

LIST OF PLATES                                                                                          xi

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS                                                                                   xii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

  1.   Background of study                                                                              1
    1.   Statement of problem                                                                             4
    1.   Aim of study                                                                                           5
    1.   Objective of the study                                                                            5
    1.   Scope of study                                                                                        6
    1.   Justification of study                                                                              6

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     Biological/ morphological description of Ocimum Basilicum              7

2.2     Taxonomy of Ocimum Basilicum                                                         9

2.3      pharmacological properties of Ocimum Basilicum                              9

2.3.1   Anti-microbial activities of O. basilicum                                             10

2.3.2   Anti-oxidant activities of Ocimum basilicum                                      11

2.3.3   cardiac stimulant effect of O. basilicum                                              12

2.3.4   Hypoglycemic effect of O. basilicum                                                  12

2.3.5   Hypolipidemic effect of O. basilicum                                                 13

2.3.6   Insecticidal activity of O. basilicum                                                    13

2.3.7   Inhibitory effect of o. basilicum on platelet aggregation                    14

2.3.8   Wound healing effect of o. basilicum                                                 14

2.4     Toxicity of o. basilicum                                                                        15

2.5     phytochemical constituents of o. basilicum                                          16

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1    Materials                                                                                                17

          Apparatus and Reagents used                                                             

3.2    Instrumentation                                                                                      17

3.3    Methods                                                                                                 17

          Collection and identification of plant material                                    

3.4    Preparation of plant materials                                                                18

3.5    Extraction of plant materials for GC-MS analysis                                 18

3.6    Gas chromatography mass spectrometry procedures                             18

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS

4.1   Table 2                                                                                                    21

4.2 Structures of some chemical compounds present in O. basilicum            22

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION

5.1   Discussion                                                                                               24

5.2   Conclusion                                                                                              30

REFERENCES                                                                                            31