PORT SECURITY-THREATS AND VULNERABILITIES

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PORT SECURITY-THREATS AND VULNERABILITIES

Table of contents

  • Introduction ……………………………………………………………………… 8
    • Background……………………………………………………………… 8
    • Problem Discussion……………………………………………………. 9
    • Research Objectives……………………………………………………. 9
    • Research Question……………………………………………………… 9
    • Delimitation…………………………………………………………….. 10
    • Thesis Chapter Structure…………………………………………… 10
  • The Theory………………………………………………………………………. 10
    • Security Regulations and Requirements.. for Ships and Ports 10
    • International Ships and Ports Facility Security (ISPS) Code 12
    • Critiques of current Maritime Security Measures and Approach 14
    • Port Security threats…………………………………………………. 20
      • Terrorism         21
      • Criminal Activities…………………………………………………………………………….. 21
      • Cargo theft      21
      • Extortion         21
      • Trafficking       22
      • Corruption       22
      • Stowaway       23
      • Human factor as a threat…………………………………………………………………….. 26
      • Economic Espionage………………………………………………………………. 30

2.4.10Poorly train security personnel…………………………. 30

  • Ports, Ships and Supply Chain Vulnerabilities…………….. 30
    • The Three Critical Flow Of International Trade Cargo……………………………. 31
      • Place and Process……………………………………………………….. 31
      • Actors in the logistics chain…………………………………………. 32
      • The flow of information/money: bill of exchange…………….. 33
    • Supply chain security and its impact on….. ports operations 34
    • Security and it potential impact on the competitiveness of the port 36
    • Benefits of making security an enabler………………………… 37
  • Research Methodology………………………………………………………. 38
    • Research strategy……………………………………………………… 38
    • Reseach Process……………………………………………………….. 38
    • Process of Data collection………………………………………….. 39
      • Primary Research…………………………………………………………………………….. 39
        • Questionnnaire…………………………………………………………… 39
        • Interview……………………………………………………………………. 40
        • Observation……………………………………………………………….. 40
        • Informal Discussions…………………………………………………… 41
      • Secondary Data Research ………………………………………………………………. 41
        • Data Collection …………………………………………………………. 41
        • Data Analysis …………………………………………………………… 42

4 Case Company -Nigeria Port……………………………………………….. 42

  • Analysis of Existing Security Measures based on media publications and the reports from various international organisations …………………………..  44
  • Security Measures: Identity and Credential Verification         44
  • Security Measures:………………………. Physical Security  44
  • Security Measures:………………….. Illicit Use of the Port….. 46
  • Security Measures: Supply Chain and Cargo Security   47
  • Terrorism and Tarkoradi Port………………………………………………………… 47
  • Port Of Helsinki…………………………………………………………………………….. 48
  • Conclusion……………………………………………………………… 48
  • The current Picture of the security   at       the port                                           49
  • Recommendations……………………………………………………. 52
  • Preventing Theft And Other Criminal Activities…… 52
  • Extensive or Adequate education on ISPS Code….. 52
  • Training, Drill And Exercises……………………………. 52
  • Stowaway………………………………………………………. 53
  • Controlling Illicit Drug Trafficking …………………… 53
  • Ensuring Integrity and Countering Corruption …… 54
  • Cost………………………………………………………………. 54
  • Future research ………………………………………………………. 55

References…………………………………………………………………………… 56

Figures ……………………………………………………………………………….  65

Tables ………………………………………………………………………………..  66

Appendixes ………………………………………………………………………..  67

 

List of Abbreviations and Symbols

AIS                            Automatic Identification Systems

BNI                           Bureau of National Investigations

CCTV                        Closed Circuit Television

CSI                            Container Security Initiatives

CEPS                         Custom Excise and Preventive Services

C-TPAT                    Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism

EEZ                           Exclusive Economic Zone

EUAEO                     European Union’s Authorized Economic Operators

GIFF                          Nigeria Institute of Freight Forwarders

GMDSS                     Global Maritime Safety and Distress Systems

GPHA                       Nigeria Ports and Harbours Authority

GRA                          Nigeria Revenue Authority

IAPH                         International Association of Ports and Harbours

ILO                            International Labour Organization

ISO                            International Standard Organizations

ISPS                          International Ships and Port Facility Security

IMO                           International Maritime Organization

IMOC                        International Maritime Organization Convention

LOSC                        United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea

MTSA                       Maritime Transportation Security Act 2002

OECD                       Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

PFSP                         Port Facility Security Plan

SAFE Port Act 2006 Security and Accountability for Every port Act 2006

SLOC                        Sea Lines of Communication

SOLAS                      Safety of Life at Sea

SUA                          Suppression of Unlawful Act

UNCTAD                  United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

VTMIS                      Vessel Traffic Management Information System

WCO                         World Custom Organization

 

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

 

This section of the study presents a brief outline of the research, the problem and objective of the research. It goes further to explain research questions, delimitation and structure of the study.

1.2 Background of Study

Thomas Friedman (2007,8) described in his book entitled, “The world is Flat”, that the inter­connected global economy enabled by advances in Information and Communications Technol­ogy and other factors that he terms “Flatteners”, does not only empowers the software writ­ers and the computer geeks to collaborate on the work in the flat world, but also AL Qaeda and other terrorist networks. The playing field is not being levelled only in ways that draw in, and super empower a whole new group of innovators, but also a whole new group of angry, frustrated, and humiliated men and women”. Organization for Economic Cooperation and De­velopment (OECD, Paris: July 2003) reported, “The world pattern for global prosperity has been predicated on near-frictionless transport and trade.” Seaport is a crucial component of the world economy and global transportation infrastructure, Nevertheless generally there hasn’t been a comprehensive governmental regulation and security oversight. The terrorist attacks of 11th September 2001 that collapsed the World Trade Centre and Pentagon in the United States, has significantly impacted multitude of sectors internationally. The tragic inci­dent has brought radical change in the maritime industry. One of the major elements that arose in the response to that attack was the approach to security. This change led to change in the manner in which security is being conducted and practiced, due to the numbers securi­ty measures, rules as well as regulation to avoid such incident in the future. International Maritime Organization (IMO) and U.S have implemented several measures after the tragic event, for the purpose of heightening the security of maritime business. For instance, Inter­national Ships and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code, was ratified by International Maritime Organization in 2002, and called on every member states to apply the code by 2004. The Maritime Transportation Security Act 2002(MTSA) and the Security and Accountability for Eve­ry port Act 2006(SAFE Port 2006) by United State was designed to improve national maritime security though, these two Act have international elements planned to strengthen security of the facilities by which Goods destined to United State are travelled. The main focuses were on the vulnerabilities of the ships and the port facilities, which could be exploited by the ter­rorist and other criminals. Though the current security measures have enhanced some aspects of security at Nigeria port, yet some of the vulnerabilities, which are crucial, still hang out. The current regime has made security at the port very rigorous, for instance strict measures regarding containerized cargo. Port security measures could be infiltrated by terrorist or illic­it traffickers, if appropriates mechanism are not put in place to verify identities, credentials,

and the intention of individual, ships or cargo arriving at the port. This thesis shall define research problem and the objective, then the issues relating to port security threats and the vulnerabilities, including its economic impacts on the port. Also how port security measures have been applied in Port of Nigeria shall be demonstrated. Though, current security regime have enhance some part of the port security, nevertheless they have failed to tackle the important vulnerabilities which terrorist and other criminals are capable of exploiting. Despite the fact that there is strong physical security at the ports, as well as the strict inspection rules for the containerized cargo, the absence of mechanisms to verify the identities and credentials of every individual who has access to the ports, secure non-containerized cargo, and prevent criminal from accessing and exploiting the port facilities, the whole port security measure can be undermined.

  • Statement of Problem

All sections within Nigeria and international community have welcomed the breakthrough of offshore oil and gas in the Western part of Nigeria. Nigerians have is expectation that this breakthrough will bring significant economic benefit to Country. Nigeria Port being the main facility for receiving ships and transferring cargoes, the offshore oil and gas exploitation and development, has brought enormous responsibilities and challenges to the port Authorities and the users. The significant issues among, is how authority is going to manage the security, safety and environmental issues that will arise over the next decade. The challenge is that, offshore oil and gas extraction includes a complex net of ships, structures, installations and people, all interacting with each other. These activities raise concern to security, safety and environmental protection considerations at a high level of intensity, at this time that the off­shore production is in full swing. Therefore there is the need to identify the related threats and vulnerability to be able to develop a comprehensive, but resilient security system to deal with the threats and vulnerabilities.

  • Objectives of the study

The main objective of this thesis is to identify the threats and the vulnerabilities concerning Nigeria port in Nigeria, and finally recommend measure to overcome the identified threats and vulnerabilities.

  • Research Question

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PORT SECURITY-THREATS AND VULNERABILITIES

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