PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS FOR NEWCASTLE DISEASE AND GASTRO-INTESTINAL HELMINTHS OF DOMESTIC PIGEONS (Columba liviadomestica) IN KANO METROPOLIS, NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT

Newcastle disease (ND) and gastrointestinal (GIT) helminths remain constant threats to pigeon production in Nigeria and other parts of the world. It was against this background that this study was carried out, to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ND and GIT helminths of domestic pigeon (Columba liviadomestica) in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria. A total of 780 each of blood samples and GIT contents (comprising 260 each from households, live bird markets( LBM) and commercial farms) were collected from purposively sampled pigeons in the study area. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test was conducted according to standard protocols on serum samples to determine the presence and titre of ND antibodies. Parasitological examinations were performed on the GIT contents using gross examination for adult helminths and Simple flotation technique for helminth eggs. A structured questionnaire was also administered to owners of pigeons to evaluate the risk factors for occurrence and spread of ND and GIT helminths. Pearson Chi square was used to determine if the risk factors were significant, while Univariate Odd‟s Ration was used at 95% confidence interval (CI) to determine the strength of association between the factors and ND and GIT helminths. The overall seroprevalence of ND antibodies in domestic pigeons was 28.1%. The prevalence of ND in pigeons in households, LBMs and commercial farms were 26.2%, 16.5% and 41.5%, respectively. The overall mean ND antibody titre of the domestic pigeons was 2.13 ± 0.65 log2. The highest mean ND antibody titre was observed in pigeons in commercial farms (2.38 ± 0.34log2) when compared to those in households (1.90 ± 0.20 log2) and LBMs (2.12 ± 0.26 log2). An overall prevalence rate of 46% was observed for GIT helminths, with the domestic pigeons predominantly infested with Raillietinatetragona (12.9%), Raillietinaechinibothrida (13.2%), Railliettinacesticillus (7.4%), Ascaridiacolumbae (6.2%)

and Ascaridiagalli (6.3%). The highest prevalence of intestinal helminths was observedin domestic pigeons in households (22.6%) in comparison to those in LBMs (12.2%) and commercial farms (11.3%). The study revealed that 12 (63.2%) of the 19 risk factors evaluated were significant (p≤0.05). The most significant risk factor was allowing pigeons to mix with other birds species (p = 0.001, OR = 11.58, 95%CI = 0.24-54.34) and allowing pigeons access to poultry house (p = 0.002, OR: 11.12, 95%CI: 0.80 – 6.36). The present study established that pigeons in the study area might have been exposed to ND virus or pigeon paramyxovirus type 1. The low ND HI titre implies that pigeons in the study area were not adequately protected against ND, and infestation of the domestic pigeons by GIT helminths was high. Majority of the risk factors for the occurrence and spread of ND and GIT helminths in domestic pigeons in Kano Metropolis were significant. Further studies should be conducted to isolate the ND virus and other parasites of domestic pigeons in the study area.

PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS FOR NEWCASTLE DISEASE AND GASTRO-INTESTINAL HELMINTHS OF DOMESTIC PIGEONS (Columba liviadomestica) IN KANO METROPOLIS, NIGERIA