PREVALENCE OF REPEATED X-RAY PROCEDURES IN RISK FACTORS AND SOLUTION AMONG STAFF WORKING IN X-RAY UNITS IN CALABAR METROPOLIS

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ABSTRACT

Repeating  X-ray examinations as a common problem in radiology units, represents additional, non-billable cost due to increased film, chemistry and equipment use as well as increased personnel time. Furthermore, patients receive additional radiation exposure from repetitions and must remain on the premises until the second exam is completed. It is common to encounter patients undergo repeat X-ray exams after their initials are rejected for poor quality of other unpleasant factors of no diagnosis. This creates a situation which necessitates the need to explore the causes of repeat and reject examinations and possible remedies. A prospective cross sectional study approach was used in this study. Repeat rate was measured for the three hospitals of interest. Analysis has shown that in Central Diagnostic Centre, the overall repeat rate causes were exposure emer; (30.65%) and artifacts (8.06%), patient movement (12.90%), processing error (32.26%) and artifacts (16.130%). In University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar exposure error (39.29%), positioning problem (21.43%) patient movement (22.12%), processor error (7.14%) and artefact (9.52%) and in General Hospital calabar, Exposure error (24.42%) positioning problem (16.28%), patient movement (11.63%), processing error (34.88%) and artifacts (12.79). The obvious reason for repeats in C.D.C. and G.H.C. is processing error and exposure while UCTH is exposure error and patient movement. This result was obtained from a total of 663 radiographs across the three hospitals with UCTH having the highest exams of 291 radiographs, GHC with 160 radiographs and GDC with 212 radiographs examined for the purpose of this study.     

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE                                                                         

CERTIFICATION                                                                  

DEDICATION                                                              

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                                      

ABSTRACT                                                                 

TABLE OF CONTENT                                                         

LIST OF TABLES                                                        

LIST OF FIGURES                         

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

1.2 Statement of the Problem        

1.3 Objectives of the Study 

1.4 Research Questions

1.5 Justification of the Study           

1.6 Significance of the Study

1.7 Limitation of the Study

1.8 Delimitation of the Study

1.9 Operational Definition of Terms    

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Medical Imaging

2.2 Types of Medical Imaging

2.3 X-rays

2.3.1 Benefits of X-rays

2.3.2 Effects of X-rays on the Health

2.4 Information System

2.5 Repeat Exposures

2.6 Film Reject Rates

2.7 Film Processing

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Research Design        

3.3 Area of Study      

3.4 Population of the Study

3.5 Sample Size

3.6 Data Collection Instruments

3.7 Data Collection Method

3.8 Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION OF RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1 Discussion/Summary of Findings

5.2 Conclusion

5.3 Recommendation

5.4 References     

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1:      Rate of Repeat for Radiographic Examination in UCTH

Table 2:      Distribution of Reasons for Repeat in UCTH

Table 3:      Rate of Reject for Radiographic Examination in G.H.C.

Table 4:      Distribution of Reasons for Reject in G.H.C

Table 5:      Rate of Repeat for Radiographic Examination in CDC

Table 6:      Distribution of Reasons for Repeat in CDC

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1:        A bar chart showing rate of repeat for X-ray examination in UCTH

Figure 2:        A bar chart showing reasons for repeat in UCTH

Figure 3:        A bar chart showing rate for repeat X-ray examination in UCTH

Figure 4:        A bar chart showing reasons for repeat in GHC

Figure 5:        A bar chart showing rate for repeat X-ray examination in CDC

Figure 6:        A bar chart showing reasons for repeat in CDC