PRIVATE SECURITY COMPANIES AND CRIME PREVENTION IN NIGER STATE

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PRIVATE SECURITY COMPANIES AND CRIME PREVENTION IN NIGER STATE

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Certification                …         …         …         …         …         …

Dedication                                                      …         …         …          …         …         …

Acknowledgement       …         …         …         …         …         …

Abstract                       …         …         …         …         …         …

Table of Contents        …         …         …         …         …         …

Acronyms                     …         …         …         …         …         …

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study … … … … … …  
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem … … … … …  
1.3 Research Questions … … … … … …  
1.4 Objectives of the study … … … … … …  
1.5 Significance of the Study . . . . . .  
1.6 Operationalisation of concepts … … … … …

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

 
2.1 Review of Empirical Studies … … … … …  
2.1.1 The Establishment and Growth of the Private Security Sector in Africa (Nigeria) 14
2.1.2 Evaluation of the Effectiveness of PSCs … … … … … 16
2.1.3 Major Constraints of the PSCs … … … … … … 17
2.2 Theoretical Literature … … … … … …  
2.3 Review of Relevant Theories … … … … … …  
2.4 Theoretical Framework … … … … … … 23
2.5 Hypotheses of the Study … … … … … …

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

24
3.1 Research Design . . . . . .  
3.2 Area of the Study . . . . . .  
3.3 Population and Scope of the Study …..  … … … … 26

 

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

in Nigeria State            .          .          .            .                                              .            .           .           .                                   36

4.2.17(a) Directors/supervisors visitation to duty posts .       .           .           .          39

4.2.17(b) Things directors/supervisor check             .            .           .           .          .           39

4.2.18   Problems of Guards                           .                                                           .              .         .           .             .                                                          .                                                           40

4.2.19 Guards and criminal encounter . . . . . . 40
4.2.20 Response of guards to criminal activity . . . . . 41
4.2.21 Guards reasons for establishing PSCs . . . . . 41
4.2.22 Methods of providing security during the traditional era in Niger State … 42
4.2.23 Guards opinion on level of subscribers’ satisfaction … …  
4.2.24 Relationship between PSCs and Nigeria police … … … … 43
4.2.25 Do guards prosecute cases in court . . . .  
4.2.26 Level of satisfaction with the PSCs services . . .  
4.2.27 Suggestion for overcoming problems of the companies … … … 45
4.3 Questionnaire for supervisors/beneficiaries … … … …  
4.3.1 Age range of beneficiaries . . . . . .  
4.3.2 Educational background of subscribers/beneficiaries . . . 46
4.3.3 Marital Status of Respondents . . . . . . 46
4.3.4 Occupation of beneficiaries … … … … …  
4.3.5 Religious Affiliation of Respondents . . . .  
4.3.6 Local Government Areas of Respondents . . . .  
4.3.7 Area/Streets of Sampled Residents . . . .  
4.3.8 PSCs Engaged . . . . . . . . 49
4.3.9 Types of Residence … … … … … …  
4.3.10 Duration of engagement . . . . . .  
4.3.11 Increase/growth in number of PSCs will lead to reduction in crime activities 50
4.3.12 Reasons for reduction of criminal activities . . .  
4.3.13 Level of satisfaction with services of PSCs by subscribers . .  
4.3.14 Reasons for PSCs establishment . . . . .  
4.3.15 Means of obtaining security before emergence of PSCs . . . 52
4.3.16 Other duties assigned to guards . . . . .  
4.3.17 Other benefits derived from PSCs by their host communities . . 53
4.3.18 Would you consider your security guards as well trained . .  

 

Major problems of guards/PSCs …    …         …         …         …        …

Possible suggestions to improve service delivery of the PSCs in Niger State Do you feel more secured with guards                                                 …         …         …         …        …

Reasons why they feel more secured with guards    .            .           .

Test of Hypotheses                 …         …         …         …         …        …

Hypothesis one           …         …         …         …         …         …        …

Hypothesis two .          .          .           .            .           .           .           .

Hypothesis three          .          .           .            .           .           .           .

In-depth interview schedule for directors/supervisors …      …        …

Qualitative analysis of the in-depth interview           …         …        …           …

Status of registration of the ten (10) companies       …         …        …           …

Period of operation in the state .       .            .           .           .           .

Personnel capacity of the companies            .            .           .           .

Does your company have a training school               .            .           .

Running refreshers courses on security tips for the personnel .        .

Sills impacted during workshops and seminars         …         …        …           …

Cars/motorcycles for patrols             .            .           .           .           .

Duration for promotion of staff .       .            .           .           .           .

Duration on duty for the guards         .            .           .           .           .

Factors responsible for the increase in PSCs             …         …        …

The ways in which security needs of the people were provided during the traditional era in Niger State .                                                                         .           .           .           .

Factors Necessitating the Establishment of PSCs …  …         …        …

Achievement of your PSCs                  …         …         …         …        …

Major constraints of the PSCs .          .            .           .           .           .

Relationship of PSCs with Nigeria police …   …         …         …        …

Prosecution of cases in court             .            .           .           .           .

Suggestions for overcoming the constraints              .            .           .

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTION FOR FUTURE STUDIES

  • Summary       .           .            .           .           .           .              .         .           66
  • Recommendation .           .           .            .           .           .           .           67
  • Suggestions for future studies . .           .            .           .           .           68

References                 …         …         …         …          …         …         …          …         …         69

Appendix 1                  .           .           .           .           .            .           .           .           .           73

Appendix 2                  .           .           .           .           .            .           .           ..          .           76

Appendix 3                  .           .           .           .           .            .           .           .           .           78

Appendix 4                 …         …         …         …          …         …         …          …         …         79

Appendix 5                  .           .           .           .           .            .           .           .           .           80

Appendix 6                  .           .           .           .           .            .           .           .           .           81

Appendix 7                  .           .           .           .           .            .           .           .           .           82

Appendix 8                  .           .           .           .           .            .           .           .           .           83

 

ACRONYMS

CIA:                Criminal Intelligence Agency

EIU:                Economic Intelligence Unit

FCE:                Federal College of Education

GRA:               Government Reservation Area

HND:              Higher National Diploma

IBBUL: Ibrahim Badamasi Babagida University Lapai

LGAs:              Local Government Areas

NA:                 Native Authority

NCE:               Nigeria Certificate of Education

ND:                 National Diploma

NSCDC: Nigeria Security and Civil Defense Corps

PGCs:              Private Guard Companies

PMFs:             Private Military Forces

PSC:                Private Security Company

PSCS:              Private Security Companies

PSG:                Private Security Guard

SPSS:               Statistical Package for Social Sciences

SSCE:              Senior Secondary Certificate Examination

 

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

  • Background to the Study

Human history has always been punctuated with societal concern for security at both the individual and collective levels. This has particularly been the case because security affects people’s livelihood. The privatization of security has now become a global phenomenon (Hyden, 1995). This is the result of a number of factors including general human insecurity, the globalization phenomenon, the privatization of public enterprises, the professionalization of armed and police forces, drive for profit maximization, liberalization of the arms trade, general unending African conflict and the crashing of the twin towers and the pentagon on the 11th of September, 2001 in United States (Holmqvist, 2005). In the contemporary world, the privatization of security has spread throughout the world to an unprecedented level that it is no longer possible to ignore, let alone comprehend (Howe, 1998).

The many types of modern private security outfits available today may be traced to Allan Pinkerton, who founded Pinkerton’s security services in 1850 with the motto “we never sleep” (Schmalleger, 1995). It was also the largest of the private firms headquartered in New York. The Pinkerton Service had a logo which was an open eye, to signify constant vigilance on its office doors. The term “private eye” is thought to have developed from the use of this logo. In another development, Schmalleger (1995) affirmed that Henry Wells and William Fargo built their popularly known Wells Fargo company in 1852 and supplied detective and protective services (private guard and investigator) to areas of West of Missouri.

Thus, much has changed since the early days of private security firms (private policing). Today, services are provided for hospitals, manufacturing plants, communication industries, retirement homes, hotels, casinos, exclusive communities and clubs. Others are nuclear storage facilities and reactors, and many other types of businesses such as information security that aid the protection of personnel.

Following a history of private guards and security practice in Nigeria which could be traced to royalty, religion, social class or pedigree; the practice of private security gradually attracted a deserved attention when it became commercialized and obviously conflicted with the social contract idea which states that only the state is capable of arrest and punishment (Kuna, 1999). Thus, it became imperative that the practice had to be regulated within the confines of duty, definition and laws. For instance, security in the traditional Nigerian society squarely lay with the immediate and extended families; hence any member of the family that violates any of the norms was in danger of being ostracized by the group until reparations and necessary purification and cleansing rituals were undertaken by the family (Igbo, 2007).

Thus, changes have taken place from the traditional Nigerian societies to the present as a result of ‘modernisation’. These changes occasioned the encroachment of western institutions on moral standards of the society which has implications for general life and security particularly on Nigerians. Other factors include urbanization, formal education and capitalist economic system. As a result a range of crimes emanated quite different from what was known in the traditional society, which may require more sophisticated security approach. Some of these crimes include murder, theft, assault, and suicide, pick pocketing, drug abuse, counterfeiting, fraud, forgery, smuggling, unlawful possession of dangerous weapons, prostitution, white- collar crime, advanced fee fraud (419) corruption, rape, and a host of others which are all prevalent in modern Nigeria(Ebbe, 1981 cited in Igbo, 2007).

Thus, Ochefu and Idrees (2002), posited that, the Nupes and Gwagyis who are predominant groups in Niger state with migrant Hausas’ prevent crimes through proper socialization of the young ones i.e application of communal approach to socialization, instilling of the fear of pain in punishment…later, other prevention measures include the organization of the Dogarai (local police), the Ninety (90) days cleansing fast as reparation; Others include the use of scarecrows, charms and fetish materials and the use of Ndakogboya or Kuti (Masquerade) popularly known among the Nupes.

Also, according to Igbo (2007), the end of the civil war witnessed not only the return of old criminals to the street; but also the ‘graduation’ of new and more sophisticated ones’. This singular assertion indicates that the current state of security network in the country may be under serious threat as crime waves continue to rise unabated.

The most recent of the threats to security in Nigeria is the emergence of kidnapping and terrorism which have been enhanced by the widespread use of firearms by criminals. This indeed facilitated the modus operandi of these criminals, thereby enhancing complete change in criminal activities as cases of aircraft hijacking and assassinations of prominent Nigerians and bomb explosions in various corners of the country became rampant.

In addition to earlier mentioned criminal activities, today law and order also pose serious

security challenges in the country. According to Sunday Ehindaro, the former Inspector General

of Police, “perhaps the most potent threat to national security of any country is crime”

(Dambazau, 2007: 152). This statement is also in line with the report of the Economic

Intelligence Unit (EIU) in a survey called “RISKWIRE” which concluded that,

Nigeria is an insecure environment for commercial operations. Security risk arises at three levels. The first comes from rising violent crime (from) simple armed robbery (to) carjacking and violent attacks….Second, companies can be subjected to direct attack or blackmail…facilities can be vandalized and staff kidnapped. Third, incidences of inter-communal violence have risen. Nigeria’s ill equipped police force . has been ineffective in stemming the crime wave. (Dambazau, 2007: 53).

Therefore, the ineffectiveness of the Nigeria police and the concern of Nigerians for security led to the emergence of guards and private security companies in the country to augment the activities of the security agencies and work in line with the laid down rules and regulations. Just like the vigilante, private security companies are also an informal arrangement to keep with the pace of rising crime rate in Nigeria.

However, as is the case in all countries, the citizens of Nigeria are highly concerned about their security and this concern has been expressed through the growth of Private Security Companies (PSCs). The last decade has seen a proliferation of PSCs in a country of about 140 million people (Census, 2006). The presence of these companies is conspicuous in the premises of both private and public sector organizations. This is in spite of the fact that in both urban and rural areas, security matters are largely in the hands of private actors than in those of the state. Thus, the function of private security companies was handled by the Nigeria immigration service in the Federal Ministry of Interior. Until 1st September, 2005 when the then Minister of Internal Affairs handed over all documents of private guard companies to the Nigeria Security and Civil Defense Corps (NSCDC, 2009).

There are two principal landmarks in the regulation of PSCs in Nigeria. The first is the enactment and approval for creation of PSCs on 15th December 1986. This law was cited as Act No 43 and consolidated under the laws of the Federation of Nigeria 1990 in chapter 367. The second is the handover from the Nigeria immigration service to Nigeria civil defense corps cited currently as chapter 30 in Private Guard Companies (PGC) Act (Laws of the Federation of Nigeria, 2004). This law is specifically enacted for the “regulation and licensing of private guard companies which must be wholly owned by Nigerians and other matters-ancillary thereto” (PGCs Act, Cap367, 1990).

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PRIVATE SECURITY COMPANIES AND CRIME PREVENTION IN NIGER STATE

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