PRODUCTION, OPTIMIZATION AND APPLICATION OF PRINTING INK FROM WASTE CARBON SOURCES

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page        –           –                 –           –           –           –           i

Approval page –           –       –           –           –           –           –           –           ii

Certification    –           –           –           –           –  –           –           –           –           iii

Dedication      –           –           –  –           –           –           –           –           iv

Acknowledgement      –         –           –           –           –           –           –           v

Table of contents        –               –           –           –           –           –           vi

List of tables   –           –           –        –           –           –           –           –           ix

List of figures –           –           –           –                   –           –           x

List of abbreviations, symbols and notations –                    –           –           xi

Abstract          –              –           –           –           —          –           –           xii

Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION

Historical overview     –            –           –           –           –           –           –           1

Writing ink and preservation  –         –           –           –           –           –           5

Ink composition          –           –                    –           –           –           –           7

Printing ink     –           –       –           –           –           –           –           –           17

Printing ink and processes      –          –           –           –           –           –           18

Manufacturing process description     –           –         –           –           –           23

Statement of problems            –           –     –           –           –           –           28

Aim/objectives of the study    –   –           –           –           –           –           28

Scope/limitation of the study  –      –           –           –           –           –           28

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

Background    –           –                 –           –           –           –           –           –           29

Carbon black   –           –             –           –           –           –           –           30

Conversion of waste tyre into carbon black   –         –           –           –           34

Reprocessing of used tyres into activated carbon and other products           –           –           35

The Improvement of carbon black from waste tyres for offset printing ink

using coupling agent   –             –           –           –           –           –           38

Ink chemistry and processes   –      –           –           –           –           –           38

The science of colours –           –           –           –           –           39

Pigments         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           42

Pigments and dyes      –                   –           –           –           –           –           53

Linseed oil      –           –        –           –           –           –           –           –           54

Drying oils for printing inks    –           –           –           –           –           –           57

Chemistry of drying oils      –           –           –           –           –           –           58

Drying process of printing ink                   –           –           –           –           60

CHAPTER 3: MATERIALS AND METHODS

Materials/Apparati      –        –           –           –           –           –           –           66

Reagents and chemicals                –           –           –           –           –           67

Methods          –           –           –           –           –             –           –           67

Ink manufacture          –           –              –           –           –           –           70

Ink printing tests         –        –           –           –           –           –           –           71

Images of instruments used and processes          –           –           –           72

CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Carbon black samples images as obtained               –           –           –           75

Properties of carbon black produced  –          –           –           –           –           77

Viscosity results          –          –           –           –           –           –           –           80

Press ink test results     –           –           –           –           –           –           81

Effect of temperature on printing performance       –           –           –           81

Effect of temperature on viscosity            –           –           –           –           –           82

Temperature effects on ink flow             –           –           –           –           –           83

Mathematical model   –           –       –           –           –           –           –           84

Viscosity-temperature model  –           –            –           –           –           –           84

Conclusion/summary   –         –           –           –           –           –           –           85

Glossary          –           –              –           –           –           –           –           –           87

References      –           –          –           –           –           –           –           –           89

Appendix

ABSTRACT

Production of carbon black from novel sources like spent automobile tyre, anthracite coal, furnace soot and graphite rod and subsequent use in the production of offset printing inks has been investigated. Carbon black from these sources were obtained by pyrolysis of shredded spent tyre and coal samples at 750-900oC in an electrical furnace, isolation of furnace carbon black and graphite rod from dry cell, drying and pulverization of the resulting samples. Acid demineralization of the samples for 24hr followed with distilled water rinsing and oven drying at 110oC for 12 hr were also carried out before sieving. The production of offset printing ink from the synthesized carbon black samples each of particles <37µm was done by oleoresinous varnish preparation method using a product formula. Viscosities of the produced ink were measured at room temperature (18000 mPa.s) and viscosity-temperature variation of the ink was determined as well. The ink showed viscosity–temperature stability at higher temperature (≥ 35oC). Tests such as viscosity, dispersion, shade, drying, adhesion, scratch resistance, gloss, flexibility, water resistance, heat resistance, opacity, transparency, and tack were carried out, being dictated by their end use. Printability and product consistency with imported black ink were verified. The produced ink quality showed a little variation with the imported ink. However, the results indicate that inks of carbon black from furnace and tyre <37µm size gave the best result besides their blends whereas carbon black from coal and graphite rod of the same size gave fair results.

CHAPTER 1

1.0       INTRODUCTION

Ink is a liquid or paste that contains pigments and or / dyes and is used to colour a surface to produce an image, text or design. Ink is used for drawing and / or writing with pen, brush, or quill. Thicker inks, in paste form, are used extensively in letter press and lithographic printing. Chemists view it as a colloidal system of fine pigment particles dispersed in a solvent1. The pigment may or may not be coloured, and the solvent may be aqueous or organic.

Ink can be a complex medium, composed of solvents, pigments, dyes, resins, lubricants, solubilizers, surfactants, particulate matter, flourescers, and other materials. The components of inks serve many purposes; the ink’s carrier, colourants and other additives control flow and thickness of the ink and its appearance when dry.

1.1       HISTORICAL OVERVIEW

PRODUCTION, OPTIMIZATION AND APPLICATION OF PRINTING INK FROM WASTE CARBON SOURCES