PROFILE OF ANTIBIOTIC USE AT THE HEALTH CENTRE OF DELTA STATE UNIVERSITY ABRAKA

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PROFILE OF ANTIBIOTIC USE AT THE HEALTH CENTRE OF DELTA STATE UNIVERSITY ABRAKA

ABSTRACT

The indiscriminate use of antibiotics has become a global problem with implications for effective therapy of infections and dose resistance. The objective of this study is to determine the profile of antibiotic use at the health centre of Delta State University, Abraka. This study was a retrospective study of 592 patient prescriptions from January – June 2015. The data used for this study was obtained by assessing patients’ medical record file from the Medical Record Department and the data obtained were analysed with the aid of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences and presented in a percentage table. In this study, 316 (53.38%) were female and 276(46.62%) were male. The age group of the patient were in category, 110(18.58%) were between 15-20 years, 20(33.95%) were between 21-25yrs, while 99(16.72%) were between 26-30years while 96(16.22%) were between 31-35 year and 86(14.53%) were greater than 36 years. Out of 592 patient evaluated, a total of 12 different single antibiotic were used, amoxyl 108(12.89%), ampiclox 88(10.50%), doxycycline 88(10.5%), flagyl 281(33.53%), azithromycin 99(11.81%) while erythromycin 38(4.53%) and septrin 42(5.01%) were most prescribed. Out of 1035 antibiotic that was prescribed, 197 were combined antibiotics, 38(19.29%) were amoxyl/flagyl, 33(16.75%) were doxycycline/flagyl, 46(23.35%) were azithromycin/ flagyl, 9(4.57%) were ciprofloxacin/ doxycycline/ flagyl/ azithromycin while 8(3.55%) were ciprofloxacin/flagyl. The major indication for antibiotic were plasmodiasis 63(10.39%), cough and fever 42(6.81%), stooling 41(8.33%), heat rashes 45(7.35%), anaemia 48(7.84%), gastroenteritis 39(6.37%) while respiratory tract infection 31(5.06%) and helminthiasis 25(4.08) respectively. The factors that influence the profile of antibiotic use were drug availability 23(25.27%), laboratory result 13(14.29%) cost of drug 18(19.78%) and hours of operation by pharmacy 12(13.18%). In conclusion, the study observed appropriate use of antibiotic base on the standard for evaluation; however, rotational drug prescribing was a major challenge due to poor adherence/compliance of prescribers toward standard treatment guideline. Poly-pharmacy was common.

 

CHAPTER ONE:
INTRODUCTION

1.1             Background of Study

Antibiotics account for the most commonly prescribed drugs in the hospital setting. Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing and the increasing levels of resistance are now issues of global concern (Charani et al., 2010). According to Davy et al., (2005), a significant proportion of antibiotic prescriptions within hospitals have been described as inappropriate. Up to 50% of antibiotic use is inappropriate (Ashiru-Oredope et al., 2012).

Information about antimicrobial prescribing patterns is necessary for a constructive approach to challenges that arise from the multiple antibiotics that are available (Srishyla, et al., 1994). Excessive and inappropriate use of antibiotics in hospitals, health carefacilities and the community contributes to the development of bacterial resistance (Shankar et al., 2003).

Irrational prescribing habits for antibiotics lead to ineffective and unsafe treatment of medical conditions. Moreover, irrational prescribing may worsen or prolong the illness thereby leading to distress and harm to the patient. As Sharma and Kapoor (2003) argued, not only does irrational prescribing lead to exorbitant costs of medicines, its occurrence is common in clinical practice.

 

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PROFILE OF ANTIBIOTIC USE AT THE HEALTH CENTRE OF DELTA STATE UNIVERSITY ABRAKA

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