PROMOTING NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT THROUGH PUBLIC MAKING AND IMPLEMENTATION
In every society, the most exist some problems. This problem could be in the area of polities, commerce, education, agriculture, communication, housing, transportation, health etc. in order to solve the problems as they exist at a given point in time, Government is always seen formulating polities in response to them and relation for the object of growth, national development and the well being of the people (citizen). This is necessary because of attempts are not made to address this problem as the arise, they may generate in to uncontrollable stages with the society’s social economic growth and development endangered.
(Okole and Ona 2002:98). For this, the scope and effects of public policy is usually every pervasive and dominant particularly in developing nation like Nigeria with a very weak private sector (Ikelebe 2006:87).
For instance, it is the making and implementation of public polities that determine. For instance, the development and the level of provision of social services, the availability of financial service for economic activities the level of industrialization, the level of security, pace of education, employment opportunity, the availability of health facilities, the level of social and economic inequality etc
Fundamentally, a public policy is a Government action or proposed action directed at achieving certain desired goals or objectives (Ikelogbe 2006:32) In the of a given societal problem, public polity guides and determines present and future public decisions as well as private individual or private business institutional actions, decisions or behavior .
According Aba (2010: 812) policies are made or formulated by the legislative arm of Government in both federal state, and local Government tiers and implemented by the public bureaucracy or designated private institution. Indeed, every country of world. Public polices are implemented primary by the public bureaucracy and specifically by the career civil servant that work in them.
This role the public bureaucracy plays through the effective implementation of government polices, projects and programme aimed at achieving development goals and objectives.
1.1 Need of the Study
- Financial Reform: in the wake of the global financial crises, government are proposing and implementing an extensive series of regulations to reform the financial sector. These include new requirement for capital reserves and transparency and for risk management. They also grant significant new inspection and enforcement power to regulatory bodies.
- Economic Recovery: the government could like to stimulate economic recovery by mobilizing investment in the real economy. Ukpere (2011:112),with public spending constrained, and many banks still in the process of rebuilding their balance sheets. Governments are looking at investor as a potential source of long term finance for example with regard to infrastructure and low carbon innovation.
- Pattern of Government Decision and Actions: to resolve public problem by serving the public interest.
- Sustainability: environment, social and government factors climate change, energy, security, human rights, income inequality, international development and water stress are having an increasing impact on the ability of investor to deliver long term returns, Onah (2002) the solution to these rely on resolving both the market and the policy failures at the heart of these problem.
Above all, the need of the study is to promote national development through public policy making and implementation for a better dissemination on the political and economic reforms in developing countries like Nigeria to assist reformers to maneuver within the challenges of the environment context.
1.1 Background of the Study
In every contemporary world of today, the problem of transacting plans, polices, legislative, executive and judicial order into a concrete action that will lead to the realization of the planned objectives and consequently to national development which will has become increasingly challenging and difficult. Making many development initiative of many nations unrealistic.
These challenges which has be divided many nations across the globe has become increasingly worrisome in the development nations.
According to Theodoulou and Refins (2004:12) put it has the stage in the policy process where by policy action occur to address and recognize national problem or needs: at this stage the design of public policy proposal is put into effect and executed by respective government agencies.
Selected instrument are applied in effective of the legislative mandate. Bureaucracy and interpretation is carried out and the specific targeted population experience the effect of the tangible the public policy implementation leading to national development.
Wayne Y. (2014) Suggest that without policy implementation, problem and need will not be solve and the objective for which the policy was initiated will not be realized. Meaning that no development can occur.
National development is refers to a the ability of a nation state to improve the social welfare, technology, and economic status of its citizens.
This is mostly achieve by the provision of the basic social and technological in fractures, like quality education, portable water, different transportation system sound medical care as it is measured by the above factor that their ability to solve existing problem of the society.
This has been the reason low and high level of development experience in many nations today while countries initiate and implement their development policies others initiate but do not implement them.
For instance, while it is stated that 90 percent of polices made in developed world, Example Japan are fully implemented in contract about 90 Percent of polices made in developing world, Example Nigeria are not fully implement.
Oluwatoyin (2011:20) This is due to inadequate finance, lack of continuity due to change of polices. Poor policies evaluation, lack of local people involvement, negative political disposition toward polices and corruption.
As the result, even if sound policies are made in most of this countries, no meaningful development is achieved, due to poor implementation.
In an attempt to measure the relevant of public policy making and implementation to national development a comparative study of two nation Nigeria as a developing nation and Japan as a developed nation will be under taking.