PROXIMATE AND MICROBIAL QUALITY OF ROASTED MACKEREL FISH SOLD IN CALABAR METROPOLIS OF CROSS RIVER STATE

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ABSTRACT

The proximate and microbiological quality of roasted mackerel fish sold in Calabar metropolis was investigated. Roasted fish samples, hand swabs, knife swab, washed water of vendors were also investigated. This project aimed at the determination of proximate composition and microbial quality of the samples roasted mackerel fish. A total of ten (10) roasted fish samples were used. Two (2) sample of each of the five (5) locations were obtained from each of the five (5) locations at different periods in the morning and afternoon. Analysis of proximate composition of roasted mackerel fish from different locations such as Mobile, Effio Ette, Stadium Ettagbo and Marian in the morning and afternoon. Roasted mackerel fish samples were analyzed for microbiological and proximate composition, while the hand swab, knife swab and water swab were analysed for microorganisms. Total Aerobic Count (TAC),Total Coliform Count (TCC), Total Escherichia Coli (TEC) and Total Staphylococcal Count (TSC) of bole samples, hand swab, knife swab and water swab were assessed by inoculating into different selective media such as Nutrient Agar (NA), MacConkey Agar (MCA),Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB)and Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA) respectively and incubated at the desired temperature.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE             –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           i

CERTIFICATION     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           ii

DEDICATION                       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iv

ABSTRACT   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           vii

LIST TABLES           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           xi

LIST OF FIGURES   –           –           –           –           –           –           –                       xii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

  1. Background of the study        –           –           –           –           –           –           1
    1. Justification of the study        –           –           –           –           –           –           2
    1. Aim and Objectives of the study        –           –           –           –           –           3

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1       Origin and Distribution of Mackerel Fish       –           –           –           –           4

2.2       Nutritional composition of mackerel (Scomber Scombrus) fish         –           5

2.3       Ready-to-eat food processing in Nigeria        –           –           –           –           8

  •       Preparation of Roasted Fish               –           –           –           –           –           9
    •       Utilization of Roasted Mackerel Fish             –           –           –           –           14

2.6       Foodborne Outbreaks caused by ready-to-eat foods             –           –           14

2.6.1    Microbial contamination in roasted mackerel fish                  –           –           16

2.7       Prevention of Foodborne Outbreaks caused by ready-to-eat foods   –           17

2.7.1    Prevention of food contamination and poisoning      –           –           –           17

2.7.2    Surveillance and reporting of food borne illness        –           –           –           18

2.8       Personal Hygiene       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           18

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.0       Materials         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           20

3.1       Study Location           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           20

3.2       Sample Preparation     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           23

3.3       Proximate Analysis     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           23

3.3.1    Determination of Moisture Content   –           –           –           –           –           23

3.3.2    Determination of Ash Content           –           –           –           –           –           24

3.3.3    Determination of Protein Content      –           –           –           –           –           24

3.3.4    Determination of Fat Content                        –           –           –           –           –           26

3.3.5    Determination of Fibre Content         –           –           –           –           –           26

3.3.6    Determination of Carbohydrate Content        –           –           –           –           27

3.4       Microbiological Analysis of the Samples        –           –           –           –           27

3.4.1    Serial dilution of samples        –           –           –           –           –           –           27

3.4.2    Enumeration of microorganisms         –           –           –           –           –           28

3.5       Statistical Analysis      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           28

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Results      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           29

4.1.1 Proximate Analysis of Mackerel Fish (Scomber Scombrus) Vended

      in Calabar Metropolis From Various Locations (Mobile, Effio Ete,

      Stadium, Etta Agbo and Marian).           –           –           –           –           –           29

4.1.2 Microbial Count of Roasted  Mackerel (Scomber Scombrus) Fish collected at Different Locations during different Period.                     –           –           –           30

4.1.3 Microbial Count of Hand Swab Collected at Different Locations

      during different Period   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           33

4.1.4 Microbial Count of Knife Swab Collected at Different Locations

      during different Period   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           36

4.1.5 Microbial Count Washed Water Collected at Different Locations

      during Different Period   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           37

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Conclusion            –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           41

5.2 Recommendations                        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           41

REFERENCES    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           42

LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1 Nutritional composition of mackerel fish (100gms)            –           –           6

Table 4.1: Proximate composition of roasted mackerel fish               –           –           31

Table 4.2: mean microbial count of Roasted Mackerel (Scomber scombrus) Fish

collected at different locations during different period         –           –           32

Table 4.3: Mean Microbial Count of Hand Swab Collected At Different Locations During Different Period        –            –           –           –           –           –           35

Table 4.4: Mean Microbial Count of Knife Swab Collected At Different

Locations during Different Period.    –           –           –           –           –           39

Table 4.5: Mean Microbial Count Water Swab Collected At Different

Locations during Different Period.    –           –           –           –           –           40

LIST OF FIGURES

Fig 1. Show a flow chart of roasted mackerel fish     –           –           –           –           13

Figure 2: Sampling location and accessibility map of study area       –           –           22

LIST OF PLATES

Plate 1: Roasted mackerel fish            –           –           –           –           –           –           21