THE RATE OF BLEACHING OF PALM OIL WHITE COAL.

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THE RATE OF BLEACHING OF PALM OIL WHITE COAL.

 

ABSTRACT

This project was carried using activated local form local corporation Enugu, and the rate of bleaching of palm oil using spectrophotometer by measuring the absorbance. It was also performed to check the suitability of local as a bleaching agent for palm oil.

The local from local corporation Enugu was collected and activated with acid (H2S04) before being used for the bleaching process. The bleaching effects of the activated local was compared to that of the unactivated local.

From the results obtained, it was observed that whereas the weight engage of local was used, the average percentage colour reduction of palm oil.

Therefore, the optimum amount of local for bleaching was found to be 10 weight %

It was equally observed that as the temperature increased, the percentage colour reduction of the oil increases. Besides it was equally noticed that the smaller the fastide size of the local sample, the higher the effect of on the oil and the higher the percentage colour reduction.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION REVIEW

SCOPE

CHAPTER TWO

2.0              LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1       HISTORY OF PALM OIL

2.2              CHARACTERISTICS OF PALM OIL

2.3              PROPERTIES OF PALM OIL

2.4              CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PALM OIL

2.5              CATROTENES

2.51          FATTY ACIDS

2.71          NEUTRALIZATION

2.72          BLEACHING

2.73          CHEMICAL BLEACHING

2.741         AERATION BLEACHING

2.742         SOLVENT / ADSORPTION BLEACHING

2.743         PREVENTING MEASURES OF PALM OIL

2.6              USES OF PALM OIL KERNEL AND PALM KERNEL MEAL

CHAPTER THREE

3.1              COAL AND ITS PRICING

3.2              CHARACTERISTIC OF COAL

3.3              TYPES OF COAL

3.4              CLASSIFICATION OF COAL

LOW RANK COAL

HIGHER  RANK COAL

3.5              PROPERTIES RANK COAL

3.51          PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

3.52          CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0       EXPERIMENT PROCEDURE

4.1              MATERIALS

4.2              BLEACHING APPARATUS

4.3              COAL ACTIVATION

4.4              TREATMENT OF PALM OIL

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0              EXPERIMENTAL RESULT

5.1       EFFECTIVE OF TEMPERATURE ON BLEACHING

PERCENTAGE OF COAL BTY EFFECT FOR BLEACHING

EFFECT OF PARTICLES SIZE OR COLOUR REDUCTION

CHARACTERIZATION OF OIL SAMPLE

CHAPTER SIX

6.1              DISCUSSION 

6.2              CONCLUSION / RECOMMENDATION

6.3              REFERENCES

 

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THE RATE OF BLEACHING OF PALM OIL WHITE COAL.

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