RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LOCUS OF CONTROL, PARENTS’ EDUCATION AND FACTORS INFLUENCING CAREER CHOICE OF STUDENTS IN FEDERAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION TECHNICAL GUSAU, ZAMFARA STATE, NIGERIA

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE……………………………………………………………………………………………………… i

DEDICATION………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ii

CERTIFICATION……………………………………………………………………………………………. iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS……………………………………………………………………………….. iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………………………………………………………… vi

LIST OF FIGURES………………………………………………………………………………………….. ix

LIST OF TABLES……………………………………………………………………………………………… x

ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. xi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study………………………………………………………………………….. 1

1.2       Statement of the Problem………………………………………………………………………….. 6

1.3       Research Questions…………………………………………………………………………………… 8

1.4       Objectives of the Study…………………………………………………………………………….. 9

1.5       Research Hypotheses………………………………………………………………………………… 9

1.6       Significance of the Study………………………………………………………………………… 10

1.7       Scope and Delimitation of the Study………………………………………………………… 12

1.8       Operational Definition of Terms……………………………………………………………….. 12

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1       Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………… 14

2.2.1    Conceptual Framework of Locus of Control………………………………………………. 15

2.2.2.   Theoretical Framework of Locus of Control………………………………………………. 16

2.3       Conceptual Framework of Parental Education……………………………………………. 21

2.3.1.   Theoretical Framework of Parental Education……………………………………………. 22

2.3.2    Parents and Formative Years of the Child…………………………………………………. 25

2.4       Conceptual Framework of “Career”.…………………………………………………………. 29

2.4.1    Career Development.………………………………………………………………………………. 31

2.4.2    Career Choice………………………………………………………………………………………… 32

2.4.3    Theories of Career/Vocational Development and Choices……………………………. 34

2.4.4    The Investigative (Intellectual) Type…………………………………………………………. 41

2.4.5    The Social (Supportive) Type…………………………………………………………………… 42

2.4.6    Factors Influencing Career Choice.…………………………………………………………… 47

2.5       Family Influence on Adolescents’ Career Aspirations…………………………………. 52

2.6       Relationship between Parental Occupation and Children’s Career Aspirations . 55

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2.7     The Need for Career/ Vocational Guidance…………………………………………………. 59

2.8       Review of Related Empirical Studies………………………………………………………… 61

2.9   Summary and Uniqueness of the Study………………………………………………………… 69

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1       Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………… 73

3.2       Research Design…………………………………………………………………………………….. 73

3.3       Population……………………………………………………………………………………………… 73

3.4       Sample and Sampling Technique………………………………………………………………. 74

3.5.      Instrumentation………………………………………………………………………………………. 75

3.5.1    Roter’s Locus of Control Scale………………………………………………………………… 76

3.5.2    Validity of Rotter’s Locus of Control Scale………………………………………………. 76

3.5.3    Reliability of the Locus of Control Scale…………………………………………………… 76

3.5.4    Scoring and Interpretation of the Rotter’s Locus of Control Scale……………….. 77

3.5.5    Parental Education Background Questionnaire (PEBQ)………………………………. 77

3.5.6    Validity of the Research Instrument (PEBQ)…………………………………………….. 78

3.5.7    Reliability of the Research Instrument (PEBQ)………………………………………….. 78

3.5.8    Scoring of the Parental Education Background Questionnaire……………………… 78

3.5.9    Students’ Vocational Choice Questionnaire……………………………………………….. 79

3.5.10 Validity of the Research Instrument (SVCQ)……………………………………………… 80

3.5.10.1   Reliability of the Research Instrument (SVCQ)………………………………………. 80

3. 5.10.2 Scoring of the Students’ Vocational Choice Questionnaire (SVCQ)………….. 81

3.6       Administration of the Instruments……………………………………………………………. 81

3.7       Procedure for Data Analysis…………………………………………………………………….. 82

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1       Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………… 83

4.2      Descriptive Statistics / Data………………………………………………………………………. 83

4.3       Hypotheses Testing…………………………………………………………………………………. 87

4.4       Summary of major Findings…………………………………………………………………….. 92

4.5       Discussion of Findings……………………………………………………………………………. 93

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1       Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………. 102

5.2.      Summary of the Study…………………………………………………………………………… 102

5.3       Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………………… 104

5.4       Counselling Implications of the Study…………………………………………………….. 104

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5.5       Recommendations………………………………………………………………………………… 107

5.6       Suggestions for Further Studies……………………………………………………………… 108

REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………………………. 110

APPENDICES…………………………………………………………………………………….. 119

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1:    Attributional Choice Theory………………………………………….. 17

Figure 2.2: Vocational Choice Theory………………………………………………………………. 46

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1:     Population of Pre- NCE Students in the College.……………………………….. 74

Table 3.2:     Selection of Sample Size…………………………………………………………………. 75

Table 4.1.1: Classifications of the Students by Location of Residence…………………….. 84

Table 4.1.2: Classifications of the Students by their Religious Affiliations………………. 84

Table 4.1.3: Classifications of the Students by their Marital Statuses………………………. 84

Table 4.1.4: Classifications of the Students by their Age Groupings……………………….. 85

Table 4.1.5: Classifications of the Students by their Subject Combinations………………. 85

Table 4.1.6: Classifications of the Students by Type of Family they Came From………. 86

Table 4.1.7: Classifications of the Parents by their Educational Background……………. 86

Table 4.1.8: Classifications of the Students by Sponsorship in the College………………. 87

Table 4.3.1:Correlation between Internal Locus of Control and Students’ Career Choice

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Table 4.3.2: Correlation between External Locus of Control and Students’ Career

Choice 88

Table 4.3.3: Correlation between Parental Education and Students’ Career Choice…… 89

Table 4.3.4: Correlation between Students’ Internal Locus of Lontrol and Parental

Education        89

Table 4.3.5: Correlation between Students’ External Locus of Control and Parental

Education        90

Table 4.3.6: Correlation between Internal Locus of Control, Parental Education and

Career Choice of Students in F.C.E. (T.) Gusau        91

Table 4.3.7: Regression Estimates of the Dependent Variables on Students Career

Choice 91

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ABSTRACT

The study was designed to investigate the extent of relationship among Locus of Control, Parental Education and Career Choice of Students in F.C.E.T. Gusau, Zamfara State. The study used descriptive correlation design with a sample size of 239. Three set of questionnaires were used for data collection; these include adopted version of Rotter’s Locus of Control, Adapted version of Parental Educational Background Questionnaire and Adapted version of Students’ Career Choice Questionnaire. Reliability coefficients of the instruments were obtained in the following order: 0.85, 0.89 and 0.80. Spearman Correlation Coefficient and multiple regressions were used in testing the seven null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The study found that Students’ Career choice is not significantly influenced by their Internal Locus of Control but rather influenced by external Locus of Control. Parent’s educational background is not a major predictor that influences Students’ career choice in F. C. E. (T.), Gusau. Based on the findings of this study it was recommended that the Federal College of Education Technical Gusau should as a matter of urgency create a counselling unit for effective and functional career guidance and counselling for students. Finally, emphasis on vocational guidance should be laid down on students’ personality, aptitude and interest.

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CHAPTER ONE

I.NTRODUCTION

1.1         Background to the Study

In Nigeria and all over the world every youth is a potential leader of tomorrow. Such men need to be men of integrity. Guidance and counselling will provide a fertile ground for the production of men with good potentials. The secondary school is dumping ground of youths of varied social fertility, mental balance and capacity, different interests and values. Equality of educational opportunities can only be achieved by encouraging, recognizing and accepting individual differences among students which will serve as the foundation for each to plan and progress towards realistic educational, vocational, moral and mental goals (Mkpa, 2006).

The overall purpose of the school is to develop the potentials of the students as individuals. The alarming rate at which students graduate and are unable to secure a job, placement could be partly due to lack of adequate guidance on the choice of subject combination right from secondary school. Throughout the world, human beings always have problems and have been seeking ways of solving their problems in terms of assistance from other people. Some people like to emulate others in the field of job, wealth, fame, and attitudes (Nwachuku, 2005). For example in line with this assertion, many a times, fathers, mothers and guardians give pieces of advice to their sons, daughters on many cases, such pieces of advice are in areas of education, dressing, vocational choice, respect for elders and other socialization processes.

Many people including youths do not know what they should do when they plan to take career decision and some people do not put enough effort into making a career decision. Many people also seem to be doing uninteresting jobs. Some people change jobs because they have job dissatisfaction. It is important to understand that many

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people make career decisions with too little information about themselves and occupation. Poor career choices are made when people make decisions without having enough information about careers. Some people do not know the importance of career information. Many people do not know that they are dealing with a very hard problem when they are choosing their career. Thus, making a good career choice is not an easy task (Okon, 2001). To make a wise and intelligent choice therefore, an individual according to Okon should first understand himself / herself. Then the individual must use his/her knowledge to make an intelligent match between himself and an occupation or career. It is the contention of Hayes & Hopson (1987) that the degree of success an individual will achieve in finding an occupational role which suits his personality, interest and aptitudes will be determined, at least in part, by the information he possesses about himself and the information he possesses about the occupation. In essence, to choose a job is to choose a way of life and embark upon a path of personal development. The chosen career will gradually shape the person and his life style. The youths of this country will have to be systematically guided into selection of courses and career that will assist in the development of this country so as to meet manpower requirements at various skill levels so that the projected demand could be met in time.

The worthwhile role that people desire and anticipate to satisfy during their life time is career or job satisfaction. This is facilitated by the kind of career a person chooses to pursue in life. This means that the career people choose do have important function not only to the individual but also to the society. Each person is bound to spend a considerable part of his time and life in a career. In most cases success in life is attributed to how successful one is in his career. This explains why people need to give serious thought and action to make adequate plan and preparation while choosing a career (Ogunlade, 2008).

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When individuals have accurate and realistic knowledge of themselves and available career, it is then we can claim to have the right personnel in the rightful careers. This will enable each person to channel himself/herself more appropriately into a career for optimum benefit to self and the society or the nation in general. It is on this basis that Osa-Edoh & Alutu (2011) emphasize that occupational choice is not a smooth process. The choice of a vocation is one of the most important decisions an individual has to make in life. The individual needs to determine the kind of job he may like to engage in. When an individual is confronted with choice making in career, there are certain prevailing factors which may determine his choice.

Career choice occupies a central position in the life of a man. It is of paramount importance that youth at the early stage of their development be guided to make more relevant choices to their ability and interest so that they can be in harmony with chosen occupation in order to function maximally in it. Therefore, if an individual explores his/her abilities, capabilities, personality traits, interest, aptitude and other characteristics and utilize them in making a choice, there would be minimal dissatisfaction (Osa-Edoh & Alutu, 2011).

Locus of control which is a variable in the study is a theory in personality psychology. It refers to the extent to which individuals believe that they can control events that affect them. The concept of locus of control was developed by Julian B. Roter in 1954. A person’s ‘locus’ is conceptualized as either internal meaning that (a person believes they can control their lives) or external meaning (they believe that their decision and life are controlled by environmental factors which they cannot influence (American Heritage, 2013).

Locus of control has generated a number of researches in a variety of areas in psychology, educational psychology, health psychology or clinical psychology. The

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importance of locus of control as a topic remains quite central for many years in psychology. Rotter (1975) in his study suggested that people that have external locus of control have four types of beliefs. These are: powerful others such as doctors, nurse, fate and luck and a belief that the world is too complex to predict its outcomes. People that have external locus of control tend to blame others for the outcomes rather than themselves.

In relation to family, locus of control is directly related to family style and resources, cultural stability and experiences with the aim of achieving reward. In this regard, American Heritage, (2007) reported that many internals have grown up with families modeling typical internal beliefs. These families emphasized effort, education, responsibility and thinking and parent typically gave their children reward they had promised them. In contrast, externals are typically associated with lower socio economic status. Societies that are experiencing social unrest increase the expectancy of being out of control, therefore people in such societies become more external (American Heritage, 2003). In his contribution to the highlights on locus of control Marafa (1998) cited in Tambawal (2001) asserted that the internally and externally oriented individual have been reported to possess diverse characteristics. Also the study conducted by Marafa (1998) indicated that those individuals with internal orientation are more prepared to cope with failure than those individuals with external orientation.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LOCUS OF CONTROL, PARENTS’ EDUCATION AND FACTORS INFLUENCING CAREER CHOICE OF STUDENTS IN FEDERAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION TECHNICAL GUSAU, ZAMFARA STATE, NIGERIA