Background to the Study


          In the world today, resource management especially at the primary level of education has become a global phenomenon. This stem from the fact that a sound education at that level makes a lasting impression in the minds of the learners. Supporting these views, Nwadiani (1998) described management of primary education as a variety of sequential and related activities that are designed and carried out in order to effectively and efficiently achieved the goals of teaching and learning in relation to the needs of the society. However, studies have shown that most public schools do not have sufficient human and material resources (Durosaro, 2005:15). An understanding of what resource management involves would serve as a parameter to the present study.

Education in all intents is said to be child centred (World Bank, 1997, Asuquo, et al, 2005). The purpose is to help in the discovery and development of the innate abilities in a learner. The primary school is an institution which offers to the child basic knowledge of literacy, innumeracy and communicative and manipulative skills for further educational advancement including preparation for trades and crafts of the locality.

Primary education is regarded as the bedrock of a country’s educational system. It is indeed a major determinant of the quality of a nation’s educational sector as well as a catalyst to growth and development in social, political and economic system (Edame, 2001:1). Thus education, is the key that unlocks potential, thoughts, imaginations and dreams in peoples minds and hearts as well as doors to modernization and national development (Brown, 2004). This means that education should be given a high premium in the scheme of things.

Resource management is the pivot of a successful organization. It refers to the adequate allocation and utilization of available resources and it is the central responsibility of the educational administrator. To this, resource management involves efficient and effective decision making process inorder to reasonably dispense the scarce human and material resources according to the needs and not the demands of the various  primary schools.

The State Universal Basic Education Board (SUBEB) is responsible for the management of primary education in terms of both human and material resources. The Board is in charge of the management needs for human resources to be provided and deployed. It is also greatly concerned with the planning, monitoring, control and the distribution of facilities to the primary schools with the sole aim of attaining the objectives of primary education. The board also has the responsibility of ensuring that objectives of primary education are achieved through efficient use of the resources provided as well as adequate planning, organizing, co-ordinating, directing and controlling of the activities of teaching and non-teaching staff in primary schools. To achieve the above outlined objectives, Peretomode (2006) noted that the major role of educational manager (board) rests with the effective and efficient implementation of such plans, policies and programmes for the benefit of education.

However, amidst this implementation process are influential factors such as board members ………….plans governmental interference and board chairman leadership disposition.

Emerson (1970) identified some management problems in education to include finance, staffing, structure and responsibility, information, communication, human relation, consultation, co-ordination and decision-making procedures. Cox (1996) stated pointedly, that the main problem confronting education in less developed countries, is the inability to co-ordinate and effectively manage available resources.

Presently, Akwa Ibom State Universal Basic Education Board is faced with the problem of population explosion of pupils enrolment over a very lean and scarcely available facilities. The current teachers statistics in primary schools in Akwa Ibom State showed 15,296 teachers to 906,256 pupils resulting into teacher-pupil ratio 1:59. This is quite high and fair above the approved standard of 1:35 teacher pupil ratio (NPE 2004:16). The board is further faced with the following challenges in the effective management of primary schools:

  1. Changing mix of the work force, current records have shown that there are more female (10,562) than male (4,734) teachers in schools, which means that there are more working mothers;
  2. Changing personal values of teachers such as how moral standard, low motivation, hard economic situation and so no.
  3. Lack of appreciation for merit and hardwork in school (Okoh, 1998).


Researchers have identified some other management problems in primary schools to include inadequate preparation by teachers, over crowded classrooms, poor state of facilities for pupils and teachers, inadequate non-teaching staff, lack of instructional supervision, change in curriculum, geographical location of schools and the type of supervising climate in schools and teachers experience, (Oghuvbu, 2009) (Ogunbowale, 1984) (Ogunsanju, 1983).

For the Board to successfully carry out its strings of responsibilities together with the above adumbrated management problems in primary schools, Adeyenu (2009:1) opines that the educational manager (board) should adopt the strategy of “efficiency and effectiveness in the use of the available human and physical resources together with the ability to combat any constraints that might hinder the achievement of the desired objectives in the primary school setting.” This process culminate in an appropriate and reasonable decision making.

On the issue of staffing problem, the board should ensure that the right caliber of personnel are recruited. This supports the fact that the quality of education depends to a large extent, on the quantity and quality of teachers (Ogbodo, 1995). This is in congruence with a member of studies that have shown that students achievements have positive relationships with the quality of teachers in the sense that the training which a teacher receives have been proved to be important to students academic success (Idiaghe, 2004). Another factor is the undue interference in the day to day running of the schools. The board should be allowed management of the school within the confine of the prescribed regulations.

It is a known fact that supervision ensures continuity and readaptation of educational programmes. It helps leaders to provide favourable physical, social and psychological climate for teaching-learning. According to Ibia (2008) it proceeds by means of an orderly, cooperatively planned and executed series of activities judged by the results it secures and evaluation of its personnel, procedures and results. For these reasons, the analysis of resource management in primary schools in Akwa Ibom State becomes a challenging ground to explore. This the researcher sought to extensively analyse the SUBEB managerial effectiveness in the resource management of the primary schools in Akwa Ibom State.



The management of resources is largely an administrative responsibility. In view of this, the study employs four analytical frameworks which are going to be discussed under the following sub-headings.


  1. Administrative Management Theory – Fayol, H. (1949).
  2. Matching Model of Human Resource Management – Fombrun et al (1984).
  3. Social System Theory – Parsons, (1951).
  4. Human Resource Supervision Theory – Eye et al (1989).


1.2.1  Administrative Management Theory

The administrative management theory by Fayol (1949) is the second component of the classical theory. It is concerned with how to make organization work and accomplish its set goals through basic principles of administration. Fayol identified and formulated five functions of management to include: planning, organizing, commanding, co-ordinating and controlling and further explained as follows:


  1. Planning: This involves forecasting or projecting an outline of activities or programmes for the future attainment. It further connotes sorting out alternative courses of action for implementation in the future for the well being of the organization.
  2. Organising: This involves mobilizing human and materials resources of the organization for effective allocation and utilization for the successful attainment of the organizational objectives.
  • Commanding: Refers to giving good sense of direction to job performance according to guidelines by the subordinate. It also involves assigning duties to the subordinate and ensuring that the work is performed.
  1. Co-ordinating: This requires monitoring the assigned duties to ensure job completion and attainment of organizational set objectives.
  2. Controlling: The emphasis is the working according to the prescribed rules and standards. It further means the act of harnessing all other functions in order to achieve the goals of the organization.


It furtherance of his desire for administrative effectiveness. Fayol developed the basic fourteen principles of management. They are as follows:

  1. Division of Labour: This principle explains that job should be divided into various parts and each part should be manned by an individual according to specialization.
  2. Authority and Responsibility: Refers to the right to give orders and the power to exact obedience. It means that authority should be clearly separated so that the responsibility of each worker or staff is known and their relationships to other worker clear. It further means that each staff should be given sufficient authority to carryout assigned job responsibilities.
  • Discipline: This means that objectives, rules, regulations, policies and procedures must be complied with by each staff of the organization. To this end, there must be penalties for indiscipline. Self discipline must be emphasized because no organization can perform effectively without some forms of discipline.
  1. Unity of Command: This explains that an employee should be accountable to only an employer or one superior. The purpose is to avoid conflict in the organization.
  2. Unity of Direction: Each group of activities should be under one plan and one headship in order to accomplish the objectives.
  3. Subordination of individual interest to the common goal. This principle states that the overall objectives that the organization seeks to achieve take procedure over the objectives of individuals. In order words, the interest of an employee or groups of employees should not prevail over those of the organization.
  • Remuneration: This should be fair and afford satisfaction to both personnel and organization. Remuneration should be standardized to avoid unreasonable overpayments and underpayments. Also, compensation to workers should be based on a systematic attempt to reward good performance.
  • Centralization: The authority and power should be fairly balanced. Meaning that extreme cases should be avoided.
  1. Scalar Chain: The hierarchy from top management to the least subordinate should be followed:
  2. Order: This principle states that materials and people should be rightly placed at the right time to avoid chaos.
  3. Equity: This refers to justice and kindliness. Meaning that the application of established rules must be tempered by a sense of kindness and justice.
  • Stability of Personnel: Employees and managers must have job security in terms of income and employment. This is to ensure a stable group and long term committed employees.
  • Initiative: Refers to creative thinking and the capacity to take initiative should be encouraged at all levels of the organization within the limits of each worker’s delegated authority and defined jobs.
  • Espirit de Corps: Refers to the act of being in harmony, belongingness and unity of efforts among workers because there is strength in solidarity.


Fayol made a number of important contributions to the evolution of management thought. He formulated five basic functions of management effectiveness which applies to all forms of group activity including the management of educational system. The assumption underlying the theory as it applies to the present study are stated as follows:


  1. Planning: This refers to a process of studying the future and arranging the plan for action towards achieving the goals of the organization. In the educational sector especially as it applies to the State Universal Basic Education Board, the yearly budgetary projections are prepared and sent to the Ministry of Education for inclusion in the Ministry’s budget proposal. The Board’s budget proposal highlights the following items:
  2. Number of classrooms required and the cost implications.
  3. Number of Desk, chairs and Tables required and their costs.

iii.      Number of Instructional Materials required and its costs.

  1. Number of Toilets required and its costs.
  2. Administrative Offices required and their costs.
  3. Additional number of teaching and non-teaching staff required and their projected salary implications etc, etc.


It has been observed that effective planning is essential in Akwa Ibom State and Nigeria at large where education has to compete with other sectors for the allocation of funds within very scarce resources. Good planning in education is based on availability of reliable data such as pupils/students population census. Unfortunately, Akwa Ibom State Government is yet to embark on a comprehensive data collection on the number of children will be of primary school age let alone those that are expected to enrole in secondary schools and universities. However, the board has only succeeded in compiling yearly enrolment of pupils in the primary school which assists her in the yearly projection.



It is the boards responsibility to recommend to the Education, Ministry the human capital needs of the primary education. On approval of such requisition, the board recruits and deploys the teaching staff to the  various primary schools according to their needs. The board receives the material resources from the government and distributes them to the primary schools. Where the resources are inadequate after such distribution, the board notifies the state government through its Ministry.


  1. Commanding:

The board ensures that the staff carryout their assigned duties in order to meet the organizational set objectives. The task performance is based on the principle of staff subordinating their personal interests to the overall interest of the organization. Meaning that the primary education success in the State predominant or prevail over the staff personal interest.


  1. Co-ordinating

The board exerts authority and expects compliance from subordinates as well as the school heads and the subject teachers. It listens to complaints from the school heads and teachers and tries to assuage their feelings with soothing remarks through the principle of human relations. The board correlates all the activities of the various departmental heads as well as heads of schools through its regular meetings and reviews the monthly/quarterly statistical returns received from the heads of primary schools in the State.


  1. Controlling

To forestall excessive acts of indiscipline in schools or dereliction of duty, the board invokes the relevant establishment rules such as civil service rules, code of conducts and regulations for public servants financial regulations, teachers code of conducts and ethics, etc, against an erring staff. The board employs such mechanism as school inspection and supervision to evaluate the learning outcome as well as ensure quality control and curriculum improvement in the primary school. In the course of this exercise, institutional problems such as infrastructural decay, absence of instructional aids, inadequate facilities, poor staffing and pupils enrolment explosion are noted and communicated to the appropriate quarters for possible solutions. The board in tandem with the University of Uyo Consultancy unit organizes seminar and workshops for the primary school heads and subject teachers as a form of in service training to improve the intellectual capacity of the teachers.

To say the least, these activities carried out by the board are geared toward attaining the set out goals of the State Universal Basic Education Board (SUBEB) in particular and those of the Universal Basic Education Commission (UBEC) at large.


  • Matching Model of Human Resource Management

The Matching Model highlights that the human resource systems and the organization structure should be managed in a way that is congruent with organizational strategy. The model further explains that there is a human resource cycle which consists of four generic processes that are performed in all organizations. These are:


  1. Selection: Matching available human resources to job;
  2. Appraisal: Performance Management;

iii.      Rewards:     The reward system is one of the most under-utilized and mishandled managerial tools for driving organizational performance; it must reward short as well as long-term achievements, bearing in mind that business must perform in the present to succeed in the future.

  1. Development: developing high quality employees

The assumption of this model to the primary work can be highlighted as follows:

The overall purpose of human resource management is to ensure that the organization is able to achieve success through people. In view of the above, the model is relevant to the study in following ways:


  1. Selection: This refers to the processes adopted by the State Universal Basic Education Board (SUBEB) in its employment exercise. The Board tends to adopt the seven point plan developed by Rodger (1952).

The seven point plan covers the following:

  1. Physical make up – health, physique, appearance, bearing and speech;
  2. Attainments – education, qualifications, experience,
  • General Intelligence: fundamental intellectual capacity;
  1. Special Aptitudes: Mechanical, natural dexterity, facility in the use of words or figures;
  2. Interests: intellectual, practical, constructional, physically active, social, artistic,
  3. Disposition: acceptability, influence over others, steadiness, dependability, self-reliance;
  • Circumstances – domestic circumstances, occupation of family.


The final stage in the election procedure is to confirm the offer of employment after satisfactory references have been obtained and the applicant has passed the medical examination required. The newly appointed teacher is deployed based on his/her subject specialization as well as to the particular needs of the primary school where he/she begins the teaching career.


  1. Appraisal: This simply means the formal assessment and rating of individuals of their managers of usually, an annual review meeting. In contrast performance management is a continuous and much wider and comprehensive process of management that clarifies mutual expectations emphasizes the support role of managers who are expected to act as coaches rather than judges, and focuses on the future.

The board applies both forms of appraisal system. Whereas the board motivators or supervises the primary school at regular intervals to assess among other things the curricular contents implementations as well as the teachers commitment to their teaching professional. It meets annually to appraise goals attainments besides the usually bi-monthly meetings to receive reports for considerations.

The board uses the following criteria for assessing performance.


  1. achievements in relation to objectives;
  2. the level of knowledge and skills possessed and applied.
  3. behaviour in the job as it affect performance
  4. the degree to which behaviour upholds the core values of the organization;
  5. day-to-day effectiveness.


The rating scales include:

  1. excellent
  2. good
  3. satisfactory
  4. unsatisfactory


At the end, continuous exceptional performance is rewarded while unsatisfactory performance is followed with positive reinforcement and dialogue in order to ameliorate the situation.


Overally, the issue of under performers should be managed as follows:

  1. Identify and accept the problem;
  2. Establish the reason for the short fall;
  • Decide and accept the action required;
  1. Provide the training, guidance, experience or facility required;
  2. Monitor and provide feedback.


  1. Rewards

Reward in this context refers to the formulation and implementation of strategies and policies, the purposes of which are to reward staff/worker fairly, equitably and consistently in accordance with their value to the organization and thus help the organization to achieve its strategic goals.

In the educational management, the issue of reward, is mishandled. Except for teachers salary entitlements, other farms of rewards are unheard of. Most often, some, teachers are made to forfeit their have grants while gravidity and pension entitlements to retired teachers suffer undue delay and non payment. To this end, most retired teachers die without accessing their retirement benefits. This problem persist, because the State Universal Basic Education Board (SUBEB) has no power to pay salary but it is the exclusive reserve of Local Education Authority (LEA). This body is located at each Local Government Area (LGA) and they work in congruent with SUBEB to provide the financial and management responsibility of primary education within the Local Government Level.


  1. Development: Refers to the provision of learning, development and training opportunities in order to improve individual, team and organizational performance.
  2. Individual capacity development: The board encourages teachers in-service training. For instance, the Akwa Ibom State Government has emphasized that the National Certificate of Education (NCE) should be the bench mark for teacher’s qualification to teach in the primary school. For those who possessed Teachers Grade II certificates are encouraged to enrole in continuing education programme.


  1. Learning and development: This involves seminar and workshop organized by the board in partnership with College of Education, Afaha Nsit, and University of Uyo, UYo to train and retrain teachers and heads of primary school on the modern methods of teaching.


iii.      E-Learning: The use of electronic methods of supporting learning.

In the world of today, computer knowledge and application in the teaching –learning process has been widely encouraged by the State government through the board. The board on its part has evolved strategic human resource development which involves introducing, eliminating, modifying, directing and guiding processes that are helpful to individual teachers by equipping them with the modern skills, knowledge and competences needed to undertake current and future tasks. But, it is worth mentioning that the State Government has not complemented the effort of the board. This is so because the primary schools are yet to experience practical application of computer education.


1.2.3  Social System Theory

Social System is a set of interacting personalities bound together by social relationships. It is characterized by interdependencies of elements, differentiation from its environment, complex networks of social relationships, individual actors motivated by their personalities, a distinctive unity that goes beyond its component parts and interactions with its environment (Open System) (Holy and Forsyth, 1986:18).

The social system has the following salient points and its relevant to the present study are as follows:

  1. Social system consists of people who must work in harmony and in concert. The board and the entire primary education system are peopled by individuals who act in the roles of administrators, teachers, clerks, students etc.
  2. There is interaction among and between individuals. In this case, the board which is composed of the chairman and board members as well as other functionaries correlated its activities through rationally and purposively directed interaction among and between the management personnel. Its extends her interaction to the school heads and other teachers through school supervision exercise. This forum offers an opportunity to the board to receive complaints from the heads of school and to assess the level of curricular implementation.
  3. Social Systems are open system. This allows transaction with the environments. The board is totally dependent on their surrounding for the needed resources for survival. To this end, the State Universal Basic Education Board encourages such body as Parent Teachers Association and Community based voluntary organization to assist in the provision of basic amenities in the schools. The board also partner with the community to ensure that the security of both lives of the teachers and pupils as well as the school property are guaranteed.
  4. If further encourages inter-dependence while the board provides the human and material resources needed for positive learning outcomes at the primary school level, the community contribute to the survival of the overall system by providing of suitably qualified personnel as well as ensures the safe keeping of the school structure and properly against vandalization by setting up vigilante groups.
  5. Social Systems are structured into differentiated compounds that perform specific functions and allocate resources. The board main function is to appoint suitably qualified teachers and deploy them to schools with severe manpower requirement according to subject teachers needs. The second, is to distribute the available educational facilities based on the pupils enrolment population and the school requirement. To successfully address the problems of school requirement, the board is compartmentalized into the following departments: Administration and supply, social mobilization, finance and Account, Nomadic Education, School Services, Science and Technical Education, Junior Secondary School and Planning. Researcher Statistics Department. These departments which are component of SUBEB work in harmony with each other to execute the functions of the organization and achieve the objectives of the primary education system in Akwa Ibom State.
  6. Social systems are normative. This follows that there are rules and regulation as well as informal guidelines which every personnel within the system is expected to observe. The implication of this to the organization (SUBEB) is that its invokes the relevant established laws by government such as the public service rules; financial regulations for public officers, teachers codes of conduct and ethic, etc incase of any breaches or infringements on any portions of the prescribed laws.
  7. Social systems are sanction bearing. In case of any violation of a part or parts of the above cited rules, the board through its recommendations to the Ministry of Education ensures that appropriate punishments such as interdiction, suspension and outright dismissal depending on the gravity of the offence or offences is meted to the erring staff. This act encourage self discipline and respect to the constituted to authority. It further serves as deterrence to other staff in the organization.


Asides, punishment for an act of misdemeanor; there are positive sanction in terms of rewards for exceptional performance such as promotion and commendation. From the above analysis, Parsons (1951) concluded that three levels can be identified in the administration of school; first, the technical functions which are the actual processes of teaching, second, the managerial system or administration whose functions are to mediate between the school and the outside world as well as to administer the school internal affairs, and third, the community system a wider social system which prescribes condition for the control of the activities of the school so that it can accomplish its goals and be acceptable by the public. In the educational management, these imply that the technical functions are managed by the subject teachers in the schools and the activities are supervised by the departments of Science and Technical education, school services etc. The managerial system and the community system are the interrelated functions of the school heads which are correlated by the department of social mobilization, planning research and statistics, school services, finance and account and above all, administration and supply, these concerted efforts, are aimed at achieving the goals delivery of primary education in Akwa Ibom State.


1.2.4  Human Resources Supervision Theory

This theory focuses on the improvement of instruction by looking at organization leadership, educational programmes and instruction together and these remain its basic assumptions. The major exponents of this theory are: Eye, Netzer and Kney (1989).

  1. Organisational leadership refers to the motivational leadership that will elicit cooperation and compliance from the members of the organization. This kind of leadership is democratic and requires humane approach to problem solving. Thus, it attracts people to the leader and not repels them as in the case of a draconniary authoritarian and despotic leadership style. The chairman or any member or representative of the board is their interaction with other functionaries within the educational system at the primary level is expected to adopt the motivating style. The assumption is that human resources development, classroom activities and curriculum designs can only be accomplished in humanistic organizations (Miles, 1996).
  2. Educational Programme and instruction improvement. Supervision in schools brings about on-the-spot-fact findings learning that it reveals the state of curriculum implementation, number of facilities and staff as well as the state of the infrastructure. In response to the poor conditions of certain schools, it behoves the boards to provide the materials and facilities in general that will improve the setting for learning in particular. This means that supervision in education is a mechanism for dynamic problem solving through studying, improving and evaluating its products and processes applied. The ultimate goal of supervision according to Nwaogu (1980) is the improvement of students’ academic achievement positively and hence, improvement of the society at large. By extension, supervision ensures continuity and re-adaptation of education programmes.
  • Employment of Experts: The theorists further advocated that supervisors should be experts in educational and instructional matters such curriculum and planning, teaching styles, methods and procedures, classroom learning climate and curriculum and teaching motivation. The Ministry of Education through the recommendation of the board ensures that the various departments in the board are headed by experienced personnel who are experts in the different fields of endeavour.


On the whole, human resources supervision theory is relevant to this work in the sense that the board’s supervision is not only expected to end with the school  managements but the should be able to carryout self appraisal on the functions of the board I n order to ascertain the level of her goals attainment. At the end, the board should be able to manipulate the initiating, mediating and effectiveness variables to enhance the educational programme and instructional effectiveness of the school, thereby reducing the possibility of high rates of failure and dropout.

The major trend in educational administration is the trend in educational administration is the use of theory. Theory has been identified as an indispensable pool in educational administration as it provides a systematic approach to the problem solving as well as offers suggestions for solving educational problems. Also, as the world is becoming very sophisticated in technology, so are the educational issued complex and diverse, thus, the modern managers need the application of the relevant administrative management theories and appropriate techniques to successfully manage the educational system amidst the scarce and keenly competed human and material resources. The above theories therefore saves to direct the study and particularly guide the educational manager (State Universal Basic Education Board) to orderly and cooperatively, planned and execute series of activities, judged by the results it secures and evaluation of its personnel, procedures and results. To this end, the approaches of the board resources allocation and utilization are result oriented because they are based on suitably chosen theories.


  • Statement of the Problem

There is a general perception of a decline in the quality of education in Akwa Ibom State which tends to largely hinged on the inability to co-ordinate and effectively manage available human and material resources by the State Universal Basic Education Board (SUBEB) as it concerned the primary education in the State.

In September, 2008, the State Government officially inaugurated tuition free and compulsory education fore all children of primary school age. Incidentally, this resulted in pupils enrolment population explosion amidst insufficient allocation of material resources and even human resources became grossly inadequate to content such upsurge in school enrolment.

Following the enrolment problems in the primary schools, some reasonable number of educational facilities were procured for the board’s distribution while the improvement of the sordid state of infrastructure was considered.

The board was therefore faced with the issue of facility distribution according, to the needs of each primary school, within the 31 Local Government Areas widely located in the State. The allocation and utilization the educational facilities were unduely influenced by so many factors ranging from the flagrant abuse of public office by board members, undue interference by the political class while absence of relevant statistical data in respect of some schools made the exercise unfruitful.

Moreso, there are a couple of other issues the board tends to lack the managerial prowess. They include: utilization of the available human resources. This refers to the improper management available teaching and non teaching. Because while some primary school within the were overstaffed, many schools in the rural areas suffered gross shortages of staff. Poor managerial supervision was another issue as well as the location of some schools. There are some primary schools in the state that are located in the riverine areas and proper provision are supposed to be made to access such schools. The above highlights tend to corroborate the claim of Emerson (1970) that the educational management problems include; staffing, finance, structure and responsibility, information, communication, human relation, consultation, co-ordination and decision-making procedures. The problem of this study hinges on the improper management of human and material resources by the State Universal Basic Education Board (SUBEB) due to the board personal disposition which has to do with placing personal interest above the interest of the organization as well as the impacts of other environmental factors.

This unhealthy situation in the management of the resources by the board tends to have a debilitating impacts of the quality of our foundational level of education in the State. The questions to be addressed are: are the teachers and non-teaching staff properly managed by the State Universal Basic Education Board? Are there adequate teachers in the primary school in Akwa Ibom State? Are there sufficient facilities in primary schools? Are the available facilities proportionally distributed in primary schools among local government areas in Akwa Ibom State? Are distribution of the educational facilities influenced by the School location? This study seeks to provide answers to these questions.


1.4     Purpose of the Study

          The importance of qualitative primary education as a foundation for brighter secondary and higher education as well as a tool for scientific, economic political and technical development is well known, it is also an established fact that the quality of any nation’s education depends largely on the quality of her primary education. It therefore means that inadequate provision and or underutilization of available human and material resource by the educational managers tends to result into poor instructional content leading to poor and faulty foundation in primary education.

The main purpose of this study is to investigate and analyse the management of human and material resources in primary schools by the State Universal Basic Education Board in Akwa Ibom State. The study shall specifically investigate and analyse the influence of the following resource management variables in the management of resources in the primary school by the board.


  1. Staffing
  2. Availability or non availability of resources
  • Teachers qualification
  1. Pupils’ Enrolment Explosion
  2. School Climate
  3. School Environment
  • School Supervision


  1. Analyse the Following
  2. Teacher – pupils ration among primary schools
  3. Average number of classrooms per school.
  4. Average number of pupils per classroom.
  5. Average number of pupils per classroom
  6. Average number of teachers per school according to location.


1.5     Research Questions

In order to thoroughly analyse the extent of resource management in the primary schools by the State Universal Basic Education Board, the following research questions were formulated to guide the study.

  1. How is the State Universal Basic Education Board (SUBEB) affected by the following resource management variables?
  2. Staffing
  3. Availability or non availability of resources
  • Teachers Qualifications
  1. Pupils Enrolment Explosion
  2. School Climate
  3. School Environment
  • School Supervision


  1. Is there a significant difference in the teacher-pupil ratio in primary schools among the local government areas in Akwa Ibom State?
  2. Are facilities proportionally distributed in schools according to pupils enrolment and among local government areas according to number of schools?
  3. Is the teacher-pupils ration in primary schools in Akwa Ibom State higher than the national ratio.
  4. Is there a significant difference in the distribution of teacher by qualification, in schools among the local government areas?
  5. Are there teachers without teaching qualifications in primary schools in Akwa Ibom State?
  6. Is there a significant difference in the distribution of non-teaching staff by qualifications in schools among the local government areas?


  • Basic Assumptions of the Study

The study is based on the following assumptions

  1. The perceived decline in the quality of primary education is likely to be as a result of underutilization of human resources and lack of educational facilities in schools.
  2. Regular school supervision by the board shall in prove curriculum implementation and teachers effectiveness.
  3. Schools in Akwa Ibom State tend to be overcrowded and understaffed due to the implementation of Universal Basic Education Programme in the State.
  4. That board members personal interests and undue political interference exert influence on effective resource management.


1.7     Significance of the Study

The study specifically analyses the allocation and utilization of available human and material resources in the primary schools by the State  Universal Basic Education Board (SUBEB) and investigates the influences of the resource management variables. The primary school is the foundational level of education and the formative years of the child. Therefore, if it is not properly managed, the future of a child jeopardized.

This study is necessitated by the perceived decline in the quality of education in the primary schools in Akwa Ibom State. Also there is an assumption that the board’s inability to manage the available resources effectively is one of the causes of the above decline. For instance, the board members show personal interest in ensuring that the educational facilities are largely distributed. First, to the schools in their local government of origin, Second, to some local government areas where some politicians are able to influence the distribution of the items. It is therefore hoped that the findings from this study will contribute to the awareness of the situational factors that tend to militate against effective resource management by the State Universal Basic Education Board in Akwa Ibom State.                  

          Besides this study will expose the implication of the present educational programme (UBE) such as pupils enrolment explosion amidst inadequate educational facilities and the difficulties of administration the board is exposed to,,  in the area of teacher-pupil, ratio which is higher than the national ratio as already highlighted in the study.

Furthermore, the study reveals that regular school supervision by the board members will not only improve curriculum implementation in the primary schools but will promote teachers effectiveness and curb absentist behaviour among the teachers.

It is therefore hope that the findings resulting from this study would contribute immensely to the proper and effective resource management in the primary schools in future, not only in Akwa Ibom State but in the South-South Geopolitical region as well as in Nigeria as a whole.

Finally, the research findings could as well serve as a catalyst to other researchers who may wish to investigate resource management in the secondary and higher levels of education.


1.8     Scope of the Study

          The scope of the study is concerned with analyzing resource management in the primary schools in Akwa Ibom State. By implication, it did not include the private primary schools or pre-primary institutions. The study was therefore carried out on the current pupil enrolment, the teachers available and on-the-spot facilities in the primary schools in Akwa Ibom State.



          In spite of the numerous researchers carried out in the management of resources in the primary schools, not much clearly stated variables have been elucidated, which are capable of influencing the resource management by the State Universal Basic Education Board. Hence, the researcher encountered difficulties in the areas like inadequate materials and relevant data. In addition to the above highlighted limitations, time and finance were constraints to the study.   






          This chapter deals with the review of extent and contemporary literature on resource management variables in primary schools by the State Universal Basic Education Board. For easy discussion and understanding, the review was carried out under the following sub-headings.

  • Conceptual Review
    • Resource Management Concept


The concept of management is seen as a process of which organizations achieve their goals and objectives through effective planning, organizing and controlling resources as well as motivating the staff to arouse their loyalty, dedication and commitment, Gbaolaneosi (2007). It also involves the marshalling, arrangement and effective utilization of resources to enable the different parts of the system work together toward achieving the goals set of the organization. This imply that it is the sole responsibility of the State Universal Basic Education Board (SUBEB) in Akwa Ibom State to manage the resources in primary school in the State.

According to Akpan (2003) management means getting things done through others by means of applying knowledge, technique and skill to achieve an objective. Resource management refers to effective allocation and utilization of the available human capacity and materials in order to attain a pre-determined organizational objective. The resources are made up of two components; human resources and material resources. The human resources in the primary schools refer to people in the school system. These people are the teaching and non-teaching staff. The teaching staff consist of the subject teachers and the school heads while the non teaching staff composed of the librarian, store keepers, typists, laboratory attendants, etc. All these people except the pupils constitute the work force in the primary school system. On the other hand, material resources means education facilities such as administrative blocks, classrooms desks, tables, chairs, blackboard, laboratories instructional aids. Against this background, educational management becomes very relevant. This is so, because it is her quest to put the formal education system. Under control, regulation and supervision in an attempt to carefully manage available scarce resources through cooperative efforts when establishing institutions of learning and research, as well as graduating learners at all levels of education in effective and efficient manner (Babalola, et al, 2006). Adeyemi (2009) describes educational management as a process of providing leadership within an educational system in the way of co-ordinating activities and making decisions that would lead to the attainment of the school’s objectives, which are effective teaching and learning. From the foregoing, the role of the State Universal Basic Education Board is not in doubt. It is the directive of the Universal Basic Education Commission that every State Government should inaugurate the State Universal Basic Education Board (SUBEB) to co-ordinate the UBE programme in the primary schools (NPE, 2004).

In order to accomplish this onerous task, the board is expected to solicit the cooperation of the heads of schools, the subject teachers as well as the community and other private individuals within where each school operates. The role of the community and private individuals is to ensure the safety of the school property against vandalization.


  • State Universal Basic Education Board and the resource Management Variables
    • Staffing Matters and State Universal Basic Education Board

Staff in the primary schools refer to both teaching and non-teaching personnel who constitute the workforce. By the right meaning of the word, they constitute the total knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents and aptitudes of the workforce as well as the values attitudes and beliefs of the individuals involved in the primary school system (Aghenta, 1989) citing (Megginson 1977). According to Armstrong (2006), on the relevance of staffing in an organization he posited that an organization is said to be effective and productive when it possess reasonably qualified and sufficient personnel needed to harness other non-human resources with a view to achieving the organizational set objectives. To this end, Rodger (1952) cited in Armstrong (2006) highlighted a seven-point plan for recruitment and appointment of new staff. They include the following:

  1. Physical make up – health, physique, appearance, bearing and speech;
  2. Attainments: education, qualification, experience
  3. General intelligence: fundamental intellectual capacity
  4. Special aptitudes: mechanical, manual dexterity, facility in the use of words or figures.
  5. Interests: Intellectual, practical, constructional, physically active, social, artistic,
  6. Disposition: acceptability, influence over others, steadiness, dependability, self-reliance.
  7. Circumstances: domestic circumstances, occupations of family.


Besides the above classification schemes, the government through, the Ministry of Education Commissioner had stipulated that National Certificate in Education should suffice as the entry point for a teacher in the primary school (Ministry of Education, 2008).

Given the guidelines, the board has been very meticulous in the employment processes in order to appoint the right caliber of staff who meet the set standards. The position of the board on the issue of staffing is in congruence with the fact that the quality of education depends to a large extent on the quality of teachers (Ogbado, 1995) the importance of adequate staffing of a school is clearly demonstrated in the way some parents sent their wards to such the distance not withstanding. In the contrary, Penetomode (1995) had observed the upsurge in the population of Nigeria and commented that, the nation has been witnessing very rapid rates of growth and the inability to cope with the explosion of learners in our schools system has affected the implementation of several education programmes. This remark was made long before the official inauguration of the tuition free and compulsory education programme known as Universal Basic Education (UBE) which has resulted in overcrowded classrooms amidst grossly adequate infrastructure and educational facilities.

Currently, the teachers statistics in the primary schools in Akwa Ibom State is 15,296 teachers to 906,256 pupils resulting into teacher-pupil ratio 1:59. This is high and above the approved national standard of 1:35 teacher-pupil ratio (NPE, 2004). This condition makes educational management in the primary school quite cumbersome to the educational board.

The resultant effects of inadequate teaching staff or teachers in the school system to have significant impact on pupil achievement. Aihieuboloria (2005) on staffing relationship and students’ academic performance ascertained that the school is essentially human organization, because it has human operatives, clients and products, hence students’ perforamcne has positive relationship with the quantity and quality of teachers.

For efficient educational management, non-teaching personnel employment is as important as the employment of the technical staff in the educational system. Their job include among others serving as typists, library attendants, store keepers and so on (Osagie, 2001). Thus, the availability or non availability of non-teaching personnel in the school system affects the academic performance of pupils as such the problem of staffing in primary schools should be tackled from tally (Urevbu, 2003).

In view of the significant influence of understaffing to the pupils academic achievement as revealed by this study, the State Universal Basic Education Board is expected to take cognizance of this and work towards improving the present teacher-pupil ratio of (1:59) in the State. While attending to the problem of teacher inadequacy, the board should also note that the teacher can not work in isolation of the non-teaching personnel because both are important in the successful attainment of the educational objectives. In supporting this point, Nwokocha and Amadike (2005) in their comparative analysis of the non-teaching staff role in the primary school and the teaching staff in the same system, concluded in their study that both staff were indispensable in the successful implementation of the educational programmes. They also exert influence on the academic performance of pupils in the school system especially in their rural areas.

Furthermore, the administrative theory articulated by Fayol encouraged specialization through division of labour. This supports the distinctive role of the non-teaching staff in the school system. Edem (2006) basing his study on the distinctive role of constituent subsystem in a school system described the role of non-teaching staff as collaborative with other subsystems or particularly to the fellow human resources in the manipulation of other non-human resources towards the achievement of the goals of the school.


  • State Universal Basic Education Board and Availability or non Availability of Educational Facilities

The situational analysis of education in Akwa Ibom State indicates that the sector was in serious crisis before the advent of the administration of Chief Godswill Akpabio. The report shows that infrastructural decay in all the public primary and secondary schools in the State due to long years or neglect and abandonment (Akpan, 2008). The present administration through the Ministry of Education has completed rehabilitation of dilapidated classrooms in primary schools as well as constructed new classrooms where they non-existence. The administration has provided several educational facilities such as desks, chairs, tables, textbooks, exercise books, instructional aids as well as the introduction of termly subvention for use as running costs of schools to halt all illegal charges and collections in the school system/Ministry of Education, 2008). The State Universal Basic Education Board is therefore left with the responsibility of ensuring that the facilities are fairly and equitably distributed to all the primary schools in the 31 Local Government Areas of the State. UBE programme in Akwa Ibom State was well intentioned but was midwifed without adequate planning because of absence of relevant data on pupils enrolment. This situation has left the educational sector worst hit due to insufficient physical facilities that give existence to the institution. Nwaogwu (2005) observed that a situation where basic, and modern teaching and learning facilities such as classrooms, writing desks, chairs, tables, chalkboard, health and sanitary facilities as well as instructional aids are lacking in the school systems would not promote the occurrence of quality education. This is so, because teaching – learning facilities accentuates the generation of knowledge at all levels of education.

Supporting the above, Idiaghe (2004) concluded that adequate facilities in schools were determinants of assessing academic performance of students besides teachers qualifications. For this reason, availability or non-availability of facilities in schools affect the academic performance of pupils students (Oghuvbu, 2009). This agrees with Nwangwu (1997) who asserted that teaching materials facilitate teaching and learning activities and improve academic performance.

Adeogun (1999) opined that a rapid increase in both primary and secondary schools enrolment without a corresponding increase in the provision of educational facilities have contributed to poor performance of students in education. The availability of adequate school buildings, classrooms, chairs, desks, laboratories and other physical facilities are necessary. For the accomplishment of any educational goals and objectives. Still commenting on the importance of facilities Edem (2006) highlighted that laboratory was obviously an inseparable part of instruction. Ezewu (1983) observed that a well designed functional school building with array of teaching aids therefore provide an effective delivery of the school curriculum.

Okeke (1989) in his studies on physical facilities and effective administration found out that where these facilities are absent or not properly maintained, teachers and students suffer and this can go along way to obstruct or hinder output while the students will develop a negative attitude towards schoolwork. He further said that if management neglects this single responsibility of maintaining school, the school facilities and our entire vision of a quality education becomes unrealistic. Taking a cue from here, the State Universal Basic Education Board is expected to work in collaboration with the school heads and the teachers in every school to ensure that facilities provided are not only properly utilized but they are serviced and maintained in order to continue to serve their usefulness. At least, for efficient educational management, facilities help the school to determine the number of  pupils to be admitted, number of teachers and non-teaching personnel to be employed and the cost determination for the efficient management of the system, (Osagie, 2001). Salisu (2001) supported the earlier position in a study of the influence of physical resources on students’ academic performance by concluding that, there is a significant difference in the academic performance of students in schools with adequate facilities and those with inadequate facilities. He further said that the acute scarcity of resources (school physical facilities) has constrained educational systems from responding more fully to new demands.

In the system theory analysis, the school requires material inputs besides human capital, to function effectively and bring out quality output. It therefore means that inadequacy of facilities will result in frustration and sense of disillusionment to teachers and ultimate poor academic performance.

According to Edem (2006), non-material benefits could be extended to include the provision of adequate school facilities to teachers to facilitate teaching and learning achievement. The absence of which constitutes one of the major sources of frustration and disillusionment. This typifies the effect of interrelatedness of the subsystems in a system. This explains that a change or malfunction of a subsystem has a corresponding impact on the constituent subsystems. In view of this, Durosaro (2000) suggested that the endemic impact of a variable on other constituent variables in the entire system should be anticipated while proactive steps should be put in place to ameliorate the situation. System approach to education enhances our understanding of the various functions of the educational organization, particularly the adoptive functions.


  • State Universal Basic Education Board and Teachers Qualifications

Quality of education, generally, is said to be based on so many variables, one of which is the teachers qualification. It is in realization of this fact that the board adopted Rodger seven point classification schemes for recruitment and appointment of newly qualified teachers bearing in mind Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE) as the benchmark for employing new teachers in the primary schools in Akwa Ibom Stat.

Several studies have shown that there is a significant relationship existing between teachers qualifications and the academic performance of the primary schools pupils and the students as a whole at all levels of education. Fafunwa (1976) opined that no significant change in education can take place in any country at any level unless their teaching staff are adequately trained – this refers to teachers qualification. Afolabi (2000) said that no curriculum can be effectively implemented without the support of a well qualified and highly motivated teacher. In this contribution, Unigwe (2003) posited that the performance of a pupil in an examination is a function of what the teacher is and what he strongly believes. He further said that no matter the amount spent to acquire materials and facilities in school, it is the place of the teacher to operate and analyse this functions. His absence, therefore, makes the whole expenditure useless and the expectation frustrating. In consideration of this fact, Obayan (2000) emphasized that no educational system can rise above the level of its teachers. This implies that State Universal Basic Education Board should not be contented in the appointment of qualified teachers only but to sustain the educational system through the training and re-training of its teachers. Lack of qualified personnel impedes the realization of the nation’s educational objectives at all levels of our institution. On the other hand, the supply of adequate qualified and dedicated teachers remains a major source of redeeming the performance of the school system (especially at the foundation level which is the primary school education) (Miles, 2000) (Aromolaran, 2001).

Yesufu (2000) in Adamue (2003) suggested that the essence of human resources development becomes are of ensuring that the workforce is continuously adapted for and upgraded to meet the new challenges of its total environment. To this end, teachers education programmes are structured by the State College of Education, Afaha Nsit and University of Uyo, Uyo, to equip teachers for the effective performance of their professions. Furthermore, their education shall take cognizance of changes in methodology and in the curriculum as teachers are expected to be regularly exposed to innovations in their professions. Also, in service training shall be developed as an integral part of continuing teacher’s education and shall take care of all inadequacies (NPE, 2004).


  • Pupils Enrolment and State Universal Basic Education Board

Education building and facilities are referred to as school plant. Therefore, what constitute school system are the pupils, teachers, structure and the educational facilities. Obviously, a school could be said to lack adequate teachers and facilities but not the pupils. The current statistics of pupils in the primary school is said to have increased geometrically after the inauguration up the free and compulsory education. The pupils enrolment is 906,256 amidst grossly in adequate teachers’ statistics of 15,296 and non-teaching 1,682. This burgeoning increase in enrolment has led to overcrowded classroom in almost all the schools in Akwa Ibom State. It has been observed that the size of the class has both a positive and negative implications. Ohuche and Ali (1989) noted that if the class is too large less attention would be paid to each pupil.  Uweheraka (2005) observed that an overcrowded classroom has negative impact on the school climate. This implies that overcrowded classroom creates unconducive  climate which brings about stress and tension on teachers and pupils. Hence, negative attitude toward school and learning by pupil is elicited. Udida (2008) opined that the falling standard of education in Nigeria could be attributed to lack of job satisfaction emanating from poor school climate. She further noted that the deplorable condition of teachers is associated with low moral which invariably affects teaching and learning.

Also, in their separate contributions, Okoh (2000) and Salami and Uko-Aviomoh (2000) observed that an increase in class size also affects the effective implementation of vocational programme at the primary level. It therefore follows that effective implementation of UBE programme brings out the balance of fairness and equity on the provision of classroom blocks to ease the problem of overcrowded classroom occasioned by the upsurge in pupil enrolment in the primary schools.


  • School Environment and State Universal Basic Education Board

School environment refers to the availability of the educational facilities such as  desks, seats, chalkboard, teaching aids and cupboard and so on, which serve as the basic ingredients for effective teaching and learning (Olutola, 2000). It is an established fact that both students and the teachers need to be comfortable in the teaching and learning environments in order to sustain the new educational a related study, it was observed that facilities below approved standard could lead to reduction in quality of teaching and learning in schools, thereby resulting to poor academic performance (Uwheraka, 2005). Komba and Nkumbi (2006) observed that the teaching and learning process needs to be transformed to participatory, interactive, gender – sensitive, child focused in safe and supportive school environments. Meaning that, in the absence of an enabling environment, the desired teaching and learning objectives become unattainable. In the same vein, the Nigerian Education Research Council (1998) emphasized that for a good education policy or programme to guarantee quality outputs, it must be serviced optimally with appropriate trained and motivated teaching staff, adequately supplied with necessary facilities and equipment.


  • School Supervision and State, Universal Basic Education Board

Supervision is an age long device or technique for improving teachers knowledge and skills as well as the curriculum content. It focuses on the teaching/learning process for the purpose of ensuring the achievement of educational goals and objectives. On the other hand, school inspection is used as a quality control strategy for assessing the progress of the school. The difference between both is that, whereas supervision tends to be selective or specific in approach to problem solving in school roles; inspection takes a holistic view of the schools evaluation and improvement. In the educational administration, both terms are used interchangeably as administrative technique which is imperative for quality education (Ogunsaju, 1983).

The National Policy on Education (2004), section 12, subsection 107, highlights one of the objectives of supervision as follows:

“ensuring quality control through regular and continuous supervision of instructional and other educational services” (p.56)       


Nwaogwu (1980) highlighted the relevance of supervision to include the changing of some aspects of a person’s concept of self or way of behaviour, attitude set, or relationship to school and within the school as an organization. Some related studies have indicated some problems encountered by school supervisor such as non-allocation of appropriate resources to meet the rapid expansion of the school system (Hinchliffe, 2000).

In the same vein, Babalola (2008) explained that supervisory problems such as acute shortage of qualified personnel/supervisors, lack of supervisory vehicles and inadequate supervision and monitoring of projects have been the core reasons for poor policy implementation in Nigeria. In the educational system, the lack of adequate supervision in schools, have been the bane of poor academic performance. Denga (1986) on disparity in school supervision between the urban and rural schools, observed that schools in the rural areas were hardly inspected for years by school inspectors from the Education Board whereas schools in the urban were constantly bombarded by frequent supervision. Little wonder that schools in the rural areas performed poorly in examinations. In support of the above, Peretomode (1985) revealed in one of his studies, how most students in one of the rural areas in the West were embarrassed during the junior secondary school certificate examination with questions from textbook not used in the schools within the area. It has also been observed that lack of regular supervision encourage absenteeism among both teaching and non-teaching staff in the schools (Ajaiye 1985) (Bassey and Asim, 2001). Udida (2008) emphasized that the realization of organizational goals in the school system depends on good,, administrative skills (including regular supervision). We can therefore surmised that improper monitoring and evaluation of educational programme of activities through consistent school supervision impede the proper actualization of the nations educational policy.

The State Universal Basic Education Board is not only saddled with the responsibilities of allocating human and material resources to the primary school system but ensuring effective utilization of the resources. The only sure way of actualizing this goal is though a practical approach to school supervision. The practical approach to supervision incorporates a practical interest related to phenomenology, communication, interaction and shared understanding. Sergiovanni (1982) pointed out that this approach is reflected on person centered supervision. Meaning that, the supervisor should act as  a counselor, mentor, facilitator or confidant in an attempt to understand, participate and assist teachers in their professional development. To enhance curriculum improvement, the supervisors would be most interested in assisting teachers with what they have identified as problematic or worthy of attention. They should be sensitive to the concern of the teachers, facilitate discussion and activities that encourage personal development and provide psychological support in teachers self defined endeavours.

The emancipatory dimension emphasizes that supervisor should help the teachers develop a reflective and crucial stance toward their own practice, particularly with regard to educational goals and purposes and the potential negative effect of implicit and hidden curriculum. Freire (1985) observed that the supervisor who adopts this approach would assume the role of a change agent and would be most interested in learners and teachers having equal access to knowledge and becoming empowered to construct and critique knowledge. A study accredited to UNESCO on school supervision recommended one (1) inspector to one hundred and fifty (150) primary school teachers and 1 to 50 teacher-student ratio at the secondary school level (Hinchliffe, 2002). If the board adopts this UNESCO recommendation on schools in provision, this will call for appointment of more qualified supervisor and provision of adequate supervisory vehicles and other appurtenances to promote the educational objectives in the primary school system.


  • A Summary of Analysis of Teacher-Pupil Ratio Among Primary Schools in Akwa Ibom State

Table 1: Teachers and Pupil Population

Total Number of Teachers Total Pupils Enrolment Teacher-Pupil Ratio

Source: PRE-SUBEB Quarterly Report 2010


  • Average number of classroom per school in Akwa Ibom State.


Table 2: Classroom and School Statistics


Total Number of Classroom Total Number of SchoolAverage Number of classroom per school


Source: PRS Department, SUBEB and Field Work


2.5     Average Number of Pupils to a desk in Akwa Ibom State Primary School

Table 3: Pupils and Desk Statistics


Total Pupil Enrolment  Total Number of Pupils Desk Average Number of pupils to a Desk


Source: PRS Department SUBEB 2010 and Fieldwork


  • Average number of pupils per classroom in Akwa Ibom State Primary School

Table 4: Pupils and Classroom statistics


Total Pupils Enrolment Total Classrooms Average Number of Pupils per classroom

Source: PRS Department – SUBEB 2010 and Field Work

  • Average number of teachers per school in Akwa Ibom State.


Table 5: Teachers and School Statistics

Total Number of Teachers Total Number of Schools Average Number of Teacher Per School





The main thrust of this chapter is to describe the design and methodology of the study under the following sub-headings:


  • Research design
  • Area of study
  • Population of the Study
  • Sample and sampling technique
  • Data collection
  • Data analyses


3.1     Research Design

          This study adopts ex-post factor design and follows with the description research pattern. This design does not end at discovering new phenomenon, but is “concerned with conditions or relationship that exist: practices that prevail: beliefs, points of view, or attitudes that are held: processes that are going on as well as effect that are developing (Best 1970, p.116) cited in Denga and Ali (1998, p.154). This research design is therefore deemed appropriate for the study. Denga and Ali (1987) have also commended this design for effective generalization across parent population with some high degree of precision.


3.2     Area of Study

          The area covered by this study is Akwa Ibom State. The State was created on September 23, 1987 with promulgation of Decree 24 of that year by the President and Commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, General Ibrahim Badamasi babangida.

Akwa Ibom State is bordered on the West by Rivers State, North by Abia State, on the East by Cross River State and on the South by the Atlantic Ocean.

The State occupies a total landmass of 8,412 square kilometers of Nigeria wealth basin, in the South-South zone or the Delta Region with a total population of 3.92 million (based on 2006 National Population Census). It lies between latitudes 4033’ and 5033’ North and longitude 7035’ and 8025’ East.

Politically, the State is divided into 31 Local Government Areas namely; Abak, Eket, Eastern Obolo, Essien Udim, Etim Ekpo, Etinan, Esit Eket, Ibiono, Ibesikpo-Asutan, Ibiono Ibom, Ika, Ikono, Ikot Abasi, Ikot Ekpene, Ini, Itu, Mbo, Mkpat Enin, Nsit Atai, Nsit Ibom, Nsit Ubium,, Obot Akara, Okobo, Onna, Oron, Oruk Anam, Udung Uko, Ukanafun, Uruan, Urue-Offong/Oruko and Uyo. Among the inhabitants of the State, there are three major-ethnic groups namely; Ibibio, Annang and Oron and the main language, Ibibio is unduly understood throughout the State despite some slight dialectical variations.

The physical relief of the State is basically flat except for places like Itu and Ibiono Ibom Local Government Areas where the topography in some areas rises as high as 200 feet above sea level. The State is blessed with two distinct seasons; the rainy season lasts from May to October, while the duration of the dry season is November to April.

Traditional economic activities of the people include fishing, trading, hunting, wood carving, raffia works, blacksmithing, pottery, iron works, tailoring, arts and craft creations. The cultural commonality is also epitomized in the similarities in folklores, songs, dances, dressing, food, beliefs and mythology (Akwa Ibom State Publication 2010).

Educationally, the State is divided into ten a(10) zonal offices, namely:

Abak:           Comprising schools in Abak, Etim Ekpo and Ika LGAs.

Eket:           Comprising schools in Eket, Esit Eket, Ibeno and Onna LGAs.

Etinan:         Comprising schools in Etinan, Nsit Ibom and Nsit Ubium LGAs.

Ikono:          Comprising schools in Ikono and Ini L.G.As

Ikot Abasi:   Comprising schools in Ikot Abasi, Eastern Obolo and Mkpat Enin


Ikot Ekpene: Comprising schools in Ikot Ekpene, Obot Akara and Essien

Udium LGAs.


Itu:              Comprising schools in Itu and Ibiono Ibom LGAs.

Oron: Comprising schools in Oron, Mbo, Okobo, Udung Uko and Ure

Offong/Oruko LGAs

Ukanafun:    Comprising schools in Ukanafun and Oruk Anam LGAs

Uyo:             Comprising schools in Uyo, Uruan, Ibeiskpo-Asutan and Nsit Atai

LGAs (Akpan, 2008)


The study shall focus on the analysis of the management of human and material resources in schools selected from the above named zones.


3.3     Population of the Study

The 15.296 teachers and 1,684 non-teachers, distributed among the 1.146 primary schools with a total pupil enrolment of 906,256 constituted the population of the study.


3.4     Sampling technique and Sample

A stratified random sampling is adopted in the study. The State is composed of 31 Local Government Areas and was stratified according to the 10 zonal offices for convenience. From each zone that has three Local Government Areas and below one LGA was randomly selected. (Ikot Ekpene zone) is composed of three LGAs but two LGAs were randomly selected from it because of its population. Three LGAs were randomly selected from Oron zone which has five LGAs. While two LGAs were randomly selected from Uyo Zone which comprised four LGAs. Thus for the study, 15 LGAs out of 31 LGAs shall be:

The pupils, teachers and facilities in 630 out of 12260 schools in the 15 randomly selected Local Government Areas is the sample use in this study.


  • Data Collection

The data in this study shall be derived from PRS Department and SUBEB Quarterly publication as well as the field work.  


3.6     Data Analysis

          The data in the study shall be analyzed using chi-square bivariate statistical technique where appropriately necessary to answer the research questions as indicated in the next chapter.