CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE SOURCES OF REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE PATTERN OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT (A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU NORTH LGA) (STATISTICS PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS)
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The study of Local Government in Nigeria is traceable to the traditional political system in the country local government administration. It was through the instrumentalities of tradition authorities. By this is meant the Igwe, Chiefs, age grades and village councils. It was through the societal interaction that authoritative allocations of values were made for the society. In the past, most of these local governments were created to score cheap political points without due regard for their viability. Apart from political and administration considerations that ought to be carefully examined in determining the viability of a local government in Nigeria, financial consideration is also a relevant factor that must be scrutinize and ascertained before considering a certain geo-political entity for a local government. Local administration was strengthened further when Britain made its presence felt in Nigeria, in 1900 Lord Laggard introduced the system of direct rule into Northern Nigeria and by 1914 the system has spread to other parts of the country.
The colonial native authorities were established with the traditional rulers having absolute powers. The native authorities provided form of stable local administration which strengthened the base of the colonial government. However the concept of the local administration charged to that of local government in 1946 after the defect of conservatives and the coming into power of the labour party. Before the coming of the Britain into Nigeria as mentioned above the institution of the traditional authorities were held sacred and is legitimized their actions and decision. In the North, the Emirs ruled in the emirates and developed a well organized fiscal system, a definite scheme of land tenure, a regular scheme of local rule and established judiciary with trained personnel interpreting the Islamic laws in the Southern part of the country. Local rulers with defined administrative system through the fiscal system were less organized. Administrative consideration will include a number of factors, one of which is purely government annually. This item includes councilor’s allowances, personal emoluments of staff and miscellaneous expenditure like pensions and granitites etc. The financial considerations include a number of factors. One is the revenue base the size and major sources of revenue such as taxes, rates and fees including market and motor part fees, etc. Since tax is paid by the taxpayers resident in the local government area of authority. The amount of revenue derived from tax depends on the number of tax payers in the area.
Thus, the size of the local government in terms of taxable population becomes important. There is also the ability of the area to execute development projects from its internal sources or from short and medium term loan. The magnitude of the council, reserves or end of year surpluses is another factor. This research work is on the analysis of the sources of revenue and patterns of expenditure of Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu State for the period of 1999 – 2001. Enugu North Local Government Area is one of the Local Government Areas in Enugu State. It was created in 27th August 1991 by the administration of General Ibrahim Babangida. The Local Government Area was carried out from Old Enugu Local Government Area. They have secondary schools and primary schools. Still before the creation of Enugu North Local Government, the view of the society later became official position of labour party, a policy which favoured and advanced the demoralization of local Government.
Thus, Local Government in this area was to become a means not only of political but also of economic development, performing functions which of had hardly concerned itself within the previous period. The Local Government therefore assumed a development oriented posture. The structure and working of the native authorities in the fears before 1950 all over the country had not pleased a number or educated Nigerians.