1.1 Background to the Study

Education is very important for the development of individuals and the society. In realization of the role which education plays in national development, the government of Nigeria has introduced various educational policies and programmes with great expectation that the felt socio-economic and political needs of the citizenry would be met by the government. This problem led to the introduction of Universal Primary Education (UPE) in September 1976 by the Federal Government of Nigeria.

The programme was introduced with the intention of taking care of the educational demands of Nigerians. The UPE scheme is predicated on the assumption that every Nigeria, child has an alienable right to a minimum of 7 years of education if he is to function effectively as a citizen of Nigeria, irrespective of gender or religious


Fafunwa (1986) in an assessment of the Universal Basic Education (UBE)programme remarked that 10 years after the introduction of U.P.E the educational outcome showed that the national objectives were not fully realized due to certain national problems such as finance, insufficient competent teachers and shortage of classrooms.

In what seems to be a response to the agitation for a more functional and qualitative educational systems the federal government of Nigeria introduce Universal Basic Education (UBE) in 1999.UBE in Nigeria is a positive reaction to the Jonterm declaration of education for all by the year 2000. It also signifies its commitment to the total eradication of literacy. It sees education in its broadest sense of close articulation of the formal, non formal and informal approaches as an instrument for the awakening and development of human potentials.

The implementation document on U.B.E (2000) explains the meaning and scope of U.B.E as the foundation for sustainable lifelong learning for the acquisition of numeracy skills. In Nigerian context, basic education includes primary, junior secondary, nomadic education as well as adult education.

By implication a child will spend 6 years in primary school, 3 years in junior Secondary school. The education programme shall be directed towards the acquisition of functional literacy, numeracy and life-skill especially for adults. Furthermore it will also function as out of school, non-formal programmes for updating the knowledge and skills of persons who left schools before acquiring the basic skills needed for life long learning. It is expected also to provide non-formal skills and apprenticeship training from adolescent and youth who have not had the benefit of formal education.

The Universal Basic Education programme was founded by the State and Local governments, with support from the federal government through its intervention programme. Federal government provides matching grant. This is utilized as follows.

Primary 60 %, J.SS 35 %. It is applied as follows.

Construction of classrooms/furniture e.t.c 70 % Procurement of textbooks, Instructional materials e.t.c 15 % and teacher professional development e.t.c 15 % through the universal basic education commission and state    Universal Basic Education   SUBEB.  The Federal Government coordinates   and monitors the implementation of the following objective of UBE programme by the Federal Government.

  1. Developing the entire citizenry a strong consciousness for education and a strong commitment to its vigorous promotion.
  2. The provision of free universal Basic Education of every Nigerian child of school age.
  • Reducing drastically the incidence of drop-outs from the formal school system through improved relevance quality and efficiency.
  1. Catering for the learning needs of young person who for one reason or another have had to interrupt their schooling through appropriate forms of complementary approaches to the provision and promotion of Basic Education (UBE, 2000).

The administration of former president Obasanjo is very much concerned about the general improvement of primary and junior secondary education in the country. SUBEB Kano is very much committed in this programme.

To ensure that this is a achieved in the state, staff welfare, provision of infrastructure, teaching and retraining, proper utilization of curriculum s well as management and funding should be given top priority.

Staff welfare: A sound and promising teacher’s welfare package should be evolved to motivate and entice them to remain in the job and perform satisfactorily.

Teaching and Learning Materials: The supply of adequate and suitable materials is essential for the overall success of the scheme in the state.

Infrastructure: Rehabilitation of dilapidated buildings and the construction of new ones should be considered in order to accommodate the increasing number of intakes. Also adequate classroom furniture should be provided.

Training and Re-training: There must be frequent and regular training and retraining of staff which will ensures evaluable and capable human resources to manage the scheme in

the state.

Community Participation: Local Communities should be fully mobilized to support the school system as a means to restore public confidence in the scheme.

Funding: The three tiers of government should be committed in funding primary education programme in the state. However, the personnel enrolment and over head cost which is responsibility of local governments should be deducted at first charge. Management: The structure of state primary education boards should be allowed to continue with the chairman as the executive. Also zonal coordinating offices should be encouraged for quality control, materials development as well as resources mobilizations in the scheme.

At the LGEA level the LGEA Education committee chairman and the local Government chairman should be carried along in order to be aware of educational activities and programme in their area of jurisdiction.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Education is capital intensive as a result the running of UBE scheme demands a lot of capital and unless the government is financially committed to the project, the implementation might be ineffective. Inadequate funding can cripple the effective implementation of the scheme. The introduction of UBE programme has led to population expulsion in primary schools. The pupils enrolment is on the increase on yearly basis.

According to Musa 1987 in Olu (2012) educationist and researchers have agreed that enrolment in our primary school has increased massively. The UBE scheme has attracted many children to school which resulted in explosive enrolment in primary school in the country. Enrolment rose from 21,122,583 pupils in 2007 to 21,714,314 in 2009. Also the number of primary schools grew from 56,105 in 2007 to 57,970 in 2009.

Unfortunately there is no corresponding increase in the provision of facilities, equipment, and personnel on primary schools. There is shortage of classroom spaces, teachers, equipments and other facilities to accommodate the increase in primary schools.

Another problem militating against the programme is lack of accurate data. The commission does not have accurate data of their staff and teachers in the programme. In the commission there is inaccurate data on funds allocation and management of resources. There is no accurate data on equipment and facilities for the programme. Also it is necessary to attempt in determine the level of funding and it’s utilization for the purpose of improving the UBE scheme and educational development.

According to Baikie (2000) literacy rate is estimated at 52% of the population in the year 2000. Again, 21million children were of school going age as at the year. The disturbing scenario arising from the quoted statistical information above is quite daunting. In Nigeria, the problem of statistics for planning cannot be overemphasized. For example, the natural population census which is expected to provide the most reliable data for educational planning and implementation has always been politicized. Planning in Nigeria is mostly based on projected statistical data which is inaccurate for educational planning.



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