SEXUALITY AND CONTRACEPTIVE USE AMONG ADOLESCENTS
Most adolescent find it difficulties to access and use contraceptives due to their cultural and religious believes, family norms and environment where they belong. Hence it affects the attitudes and knowledge of contraceptives. (WHO 2004. 8)
The aim of this project is to share adolescents experiences about sexuality and contraceptives from a cultural perspective. And task is to use digital story telling method to share adolescent experiences of sexuality and contraception from cultural perspectives.
The project was carried out in Hermanni School, Salo, and was basically done under the MIMO project focusing on adolescents of age group 13-15 years old. Digital story telling method was used to show cultural background on the basis of sexuality and contraceptive method from four different countries.
Education about sexuality and contraceptives is still needed comprehensively in the above mentioned countries which have been studied in this study to prevent the possible negative outcomes.
Sexuality, Contraceptives, Adolescents, Education, Teenage pregnancy, Cultural background, communication, decision making, abortion,Digital story telling
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS (OR) SYMBOLS
2 CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE
3 AIM AND TASK
4 EMPIRICAL IMPLICATION
5.1 Ethical considerations
5.2 Reliability and validity
Sexuality and contraceptives is an increasing topic in this 21st century around the world due to the adverse effects of unsafe sexual behaviors, such as unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases among the adolescents as well as adults. Teaching adolescents about birth control may not be consistent with promoting abstinence. However, most adolescents are sexually active and have high tendency to engage in early sexual activities despite having knowledge of abstinence. According to the American Pediatric Association, nine in ten adolescents have had intercourse by the time they turn twenty and, more than 15 million girls between the ages of 15 and 19 give birth every year worldwide, and an additional 5 million have abortions. In Central America, 18% of all births are to women in their teens and in Africa this figure is 23% according to world health organization. Parents-adolescent communication also plays an important role in attitudes and behaviors of adolescents concerning contraceptives. (Pediatrics 1999.)
Our project is done under MIMO (Moving in moving on) which is 3 year research and development project with EU funding from the central Baltic program. The aim of the project is to improve professional team work and art based methods for social and youth work by carrying out various workshops for the target groups of 13-17 year olds. The project is targeted on youths who are at risk of isolation from society. (MIMO 2013.)
However, the aim of this project is to share adolescents experiences about sexuality and contraceptives from a cultural perspective. And task is to use digital story telling method to share adolescent experiences of sexuality and contraception from cultural perspectives.
2 CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE.
A large number of factors influence sexual activities during adolescence period. The most common factor is teenagers’ ability to cope with the body changes in shape and size especially women. Teenagers are exposed to the risk of contracting STDs, including HIV/Aids and teenage girls are even more at risk, with early, unwanted and unplanned pregnancies.(WHO2013.)
This chapter is a review of different literatures of relevant articles, journals and texts related to adolescent sexuality and contraceptive experiences from cultural perspectives.
Adolescent Sexuality and Contraception.
A Zambian population has about 48% of adolescents below 15 years and 21 years. Most of adolescent who drop out from school engage themselves in drugs, alcohol, smoking and unprotected sex, risking their lives with diseases like HIV/Aids, sexual transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies. Sexual activities has become more passively to youths in rural areas that have less knowledge about sexuality and contraceptives, and have difficulties obtaining information and contraceptive services or they are poorly informed about sexual health issues. In the past Zambian parents could not talk to their children about sex because it was a taboo, however, it is the duty of a grandfathers or grandmother to instruct their grandchildren on sexual matters (Likwa 2009). This is so due to culture, religions, believes and values followed by Zambian traditions. Adolescents lack knowledge due to factors such as ignorance from service providers and negative staff attitudes at the centers also fear of being seen by neighbors who may communicate to parents or guardians. Some believe that contraceptive access is thought of promoting prostitution; pills cause cancer, infertility and other diseases among women. Parents, health care providers, teachers and the society are neglecting adolescent’s sexual activities. (Mukuka et al.2006. 488-494)
SEXUALITY AND CONTRACEPTIVE USE AMONG ADOLESCENTS