TITLE PAGE                                                                                                             i

APPROVAL PAGE                                                                                                               ii

CERTIFICATION                                                                                                     iii

DEDICATION                                                                                                           iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                                                                         v

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                           vi

APPENDIX                                                                                                                ix

CHAPTER ONE:  INTRODUCTION                                                                   1

Background of the Study                                                                                 1

Statement of the Problem                                                                                 5

Purpose of the Study                                                                                        6

Significance of Study                                                                                       6

Research Questions                                                                                          8

Hypotheses                                                                                                       8

Scope of the Study                                                                                           9

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW                                                      10

           Conceptual Framework                                                                                 10

 Technical Colleges in Nigeria                                                           10

  • Formwork and concrete form types                                                    11

Domestic roof Construction                                                               39

Theoretical Framework                                                                                43

  • Skill Development Theory                                                                  43
  • Theory on Maintenance                                                                      44
  • Need Assessment Theory                                                                   45

Related Empirical Studies                                                                            45

Summary of the Reviewed Literature                                                          52


Design of the Study                                                                                         54

Area of the Study                                                                                             55

Population for the Study                                                                                  54

Sample and Sampling Techniques                                                                    55

Instrument for Data Collection                                                               55

Validation of the Instrument                                                                            55

Reliability of the Instrument                                                                            56

Method of Data Collection                                                                              56

Method for Data Analysis                                                                                56


Research Question One                                                                                    57

Research Question Two                                                                                   58

Research Question Three                                                                                  59

Research Question Four                                                                                   60

Hypothesis One                                                                                                62

Hypothesis Two                                                                                               64

Hypothesis Three                                                                                              65

Hypothesis Four                                                                                               67

Findings of the Study                                                                                      69


Re-Statement of the Problem of the Study                                                    75       

Summary of Procedure                                                                                   75

Principal Findings                                                                                           76

Conclusion                                                                                                      77

Implication of the Study                                                                                 77

Limitation of the Study                                                                                  78

Recommendations                                                                                           79

Suggestion for Further Research                                                                    79

REFERENCES                                                                                                        81


A: Population Distribution of the Respondents                                             85

B: Questionnaire                                                                                             86


The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The study was aimed at determining the skill improvement needs of carpentry and joinery graduates in technical colleges in Kaduna state of Nigeria. Specifically, the study sought to find skill improvement need of carpentry and joinery graduates in framed construction, Formwork, stairs and roofing? Four research questions were developed to guide the study. Four hypotheses were formulated to test the research questions at 0.05 levels of significance. A population of 62 respondents was used which consisted of 47 carpentry and joinery teachers and 15 instructors in the six technical colleges in Kaduna State. There was no sample for the entire population was used. The instrument for the collection of data for the study was a structured questionnaire called “skill improvement needs of carpentry and joinery graduates in technical colleges (SINCJGTC) with 82 items. The questionnaire was face validated by three experts, two of them from the Department of Industrial Technical Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka and one from the Department of Education Technical, Kaduna Polytechnic. The data collected was analyzed using Cronbach’s alpha (α) method to establish the internal consistency of the questionnaire. The data were collected by the researcher with the aid of three research assistants.  The data gathered from the respondents were analyzed using mean to answer the research questions while the four null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 levels of significance with the use of Statistical Package for Social sciences (SPSS) version 20. The findings of the study choose the right saw for the job. Make one complete cabinet at a time Mark the stock Select the stock with cutting list.  Check the machine set-ups. Visualize the finished project and stand paper therefore recommended that



Background of the Study

Technical colleges are the institutions where students are trained to acquire relevant knowledge and skills in different occupations for employment in the world of work (NBTE, 2007). According to Federal Ministry of Education (FME) (2004), Technical college is a segment of Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) designed to produce craftsmen at the secondary school level and master craftsmen at the advanced craft. The goals of technical colleges are to provide trained manpower in the applied science technology and business particularly at advanced craft and technician levels. That is to provide the technical knowledge, necessary and vocational skills give training, impart the skills necessary for agriculture, commercial and economic development, and import the necessary skills to individual who shall be self – reliant economically (Nwogo and Nwanoruo, 2011). Technical colleges are regarded as the principal vocational institutions in Nigeria (Okoro, 2006). The functions of Technical colleges are to practicalize training using newer methodologies of applying science, material, tools, devices equipment, machining and other resources to enable Carpentry and joinery expertto solve practical problems. This includes manipulation of materials or objects in form of work task such as; complex processes of dismantling and re assembling a Carpentry and joinery work.

Carpentry and joinery is one of the trades in technical colleges in Nigeria in which students acquire skills and basic knowledge needed for employment after graduation. Skills in carpentry and joinery are acquired in trade centers. Carpentry is a skilled trade in which the primary work performed is the cutting, shaping and installation of building materials during the construction of buildings, ships, timber bridges, concrete formwork. According to Mohammed 2011 Carpenters traditionally work with natural wood and did the rougher work such as framing, but today many other materials are also used and sometimes the finer trades of cabinetmaking and furniture building are considered carpentry. Carpenters normally frame post-and-beam buildings, Carpenters learn this trade through formal training or being employed through an apprenticeship training—normally 4 years—and qualify by successfully the training completing It is also common that the skill can be learnt by gaining work experience other than a formal formwork training program,

Formwork is built on site out of timber and plywood or moisture-resistant particleboard. It is easy to produce but time-consuming for larger structures, and the plywood facing has a relatively short lifespan. It is still used extensively where the labour costs are lower than the costs for procuring reusable formwork. It is also the most flexible type of formwork, so even where other systems are in use, complicated sections may use it. The two major advantages of formwork systems, compared to traditional timber formwork, are speed of construction (modular systems pin, clip, or screw together quickly) and lower life-cycle costs (barring major force, the frame is almost indestructible, while the covering if made of wood; may have to be replaced after a few – or a few dozen – uses, but if the covering is made with steel or aluminium the form can achieve up to two thousand uses depending on care and the applications).Permanent Insulated Formwork: This formwork is assembled on site, usually out of insulating concrete forms (ICF). The formwork stays in place after the concrete has cured, and may provide advantages in terms of speed, strength, superior thermal and acoustic insulation, space to run utilities within layers of the frame.

Frame Constructionconsist of stiles joined by two or more rails. Typical application of this are minor frames, paneling, table tops (when framed), screens, backs, doors and window frames. The point about this method of cabinet construction is that it overcomes the bad effects of shrinkage in timber and at the same time method of cabinet construction in groove or rebate, is entirely free to shrink or swell without affecting the framework. Strength is ensured by the framework, the grain of which runs in its length along both width and height, so giving rigidity in both directions. The following joints may be used depending on the purpose of the frame-mortise and tenon, mitre butt, dowel like in stairs.

A stair, or a stair step is one step in a flight of stairs. Ruggeril (2006) stated that in buildings, stairs is a term applied to a complete flight of steps between two floors. A stair flight is a run of stairs or steps between landings. Neeuferi (2000) stated that astaircase or stairway is one or more flights of stairs leading from one floor to another, and includes landings, newel posts, handrails, balustrades and additional parts. A stairwell is a compartment extending vertically through a building in which stairs are placed. A stair hall is the stairs, landings, hallways, or other portions of the public hall through which it is necessary to pass when going from the entrance floor to the other floors of a building. Box stairs are stairs built between walls, usually with no support except the wall strings. Stairs stringer calculation (2013) recorded that stairs may be in a straight run, leading from one floor to another without a turn or change in direction. Stairs may change direction, commonly by two straight flights connected at a 90 degree angle landing. Stairs may also return onto themselves with 180 degree angle landings at each end of straight flights forming a vertical stairway commonly used in buildings. Many variations of geometrical stairs may be formed of circular, elliptical and irregular constructions.  Stairs may be a required component of egress from structures and buildings. Stairs are also provided for convenience to access floors, roofs, levels and walking surfaces not accessible by other means.

Domestic roof construction is the framing and roof covering which is found on most suburban detached houses in cold and temperate climates. Such roofs are mostly built with timber, take a number of different shapes,modern timber roofs are mostly framed with pairs of common rafters or prefabricated wooden trusses fastened together with truss connector plates. Timber framed and historic buildings may be framed with principal rafters or timber roof trusses. Roofs are also designated as warm or cold roof depending on how they are designed and built with regard to thermal building insulation and ventilation. The steepness or roof pitch of a sloped roof is determined primarily by the roof covering material and aesthetic design. Flat roofs actually slope up to approximately ten degrees to shed water. Flat roofs on houses are primarily found in arid regions.

Need can be described as something that is required not just because one would like to have it, but because it is useful or very important. It suffices that any technical skill that is very useful for teaching carpentry and joinery which teachers lack becomes a need to a teacher. This becomes necessary to update and improve the skills of carpentry and joinery teachers. Improvement in the view of Amusa (2009) is the process of making something better. Ado (2012) stated that if something or situation improves, that thing or situation becomes better. Inthe context of this study, improving carpentry and joinery teachers’ competencies becomes inevitable for the technological development in Nigeria.

Competence is the ability to do what is needed; it is a quality or state of being functionally adequate or having knowledge, skill or strength (as for a particular duty or respect). According to Abdullahi and Ogbuanya (2014) to be competent implies that an individual has acquired the knowledge, skills, attitude and judgment which he requires in order to perform successfully at a specified proficiency level in a given task. For the teacher of carpentry and joinery to be able to impart the knowledge of the different areas of carpentry and joinery students, he/she should be skilled, knowledgeable and competent. However, as a result of technological changes, it requires that the teacher competence be updated. According to Sowande (2002), updating of skills of teacher is a professional improvement which is retraining of teachers in relevant job skills to enhance their performance and the task.

Statement of the Problem