SKILLS REQUIRED BY AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE TEACHERS FOR EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF SCHOOL FARM IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN INI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF AKWA IBOM STATE

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SKILLS REQUIRED BY AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE TEACHERS FOR EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF SCHOOL FARM IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN INI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF AKWA IBOM STATE

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
Agricultural Science is a pre-vocational subject in the junior and senior secondary schools respectively. The objective of this subject is to provide basic knowledge and skills that will prepare students either to perform in an occupation or to make a career in the chosen subject (FRN, 2013). These objective can only be realize when agricultural science teachers possess skills relevant for effective management of school farm. Deficiency of relevant skills in managing the school farm effectively among agricultural science teachers has been a major problem which has contributed to the poor management of the school farm, thereby inhibiting the actualization of the purpose which the school was served.
According to Osinem (2008), school farm is a miniature pilot farm where scientific findings, and innovations can be tried thoroughly and adjustments made before feedback is sent to researchers for improvement. The importance of school farm in skill development and acquisition of basic entry skills cannot be over-stressed. Olaitan and Ogbazi (2008) in support of the above statement, maintained that school farm provides an environment where theoretical aspects of agriculture taught in the classroom in respect of improved knowledge, skill and practices in agricultural production are tried out and put into real life situation. The school farm is also recognized as a laboratory for teaching agricultural practical lessons. It means that teachers are supposed to possess skills required to its effective management. A study by Agbulu (2010) on the management of school farms for improvement of the teaching of agricultural science in Benue State found that the school farms were not managed for improving the teaching of agricultural science. The findings also revealed that teachers taught only the theoretical aspects of the subject in the classroom due to lack of certain skills in managing the school farm effectively. The school farm has been perceived as very important for imparting manipulative skills to students. In achieving these, agricultural science teachers requires some level of competency in managing the school farm effectively.
Okorie (2006) defined skill as expertness, practical ability, dexterity, task and organized sequence of actions, proficiency executed and usually displayed in flexible but systematic temporal pattern. Skill in management of school farm, can be regarded as expertise or accuracy in carrying out tasks and activities that lead to efficiency or perfections in the performance of farm functions. The school farm is a laboratory for agricultural classes and for it to function effectively, it has to be well managed.
Management of school farm is defined as the process of planning, organizing, directing, controlling and evaluating activities in the farm to achieve specific objectives. These objectives include:
To demonstrate appropriate practices.
To provide valuable experiences to students.
To provide opportunities for co-ordinating classroom theory with practices.
To conduct some experiments.
Thieurauf and Collins (2008) saw management of school farm as a process of allocating the school farm input (human and material resource) through planning, organizing, directing and controlling for the purpose of accomplishing the school farm objectives. Ojukwu (2006) defined farm management as a skillful treatment towards crop and livestock production as well as the art of controlling the resources of producing crops and livestock.
Osuala (2009) explained the skills required by agricultural science teachers for effective management of the school farm to include the following:
Planning Skill: In school farm management, planning skill refers to the ability of the teacher to make an outline of the activities to be performed in the farm in order to achieve the objectives for which it is established. It is a process of deciding in the present what to do in the future about the best combination of crops and livestock to be raised through rational use of resources. It is deciding what is be done in the school farm and plan to accomplish it.
Organizing Skill: Organizing skill in school farm management is making arrangements whereby students, staff, space and materials are related to time and instructional objectives in coordinate instructional ways. It is also about deciding how the work is to be divided and coordinated.
Directing Skill: Directing skill in school farm management is leading, influencing and motivating students and teachers to perform essential tasks. It embraces working with and through others to achieve the school farm objectives.
Controlling Skill: Controlling skill in school farm management is the process of ensuring that actual activities in the farm conform to planned activities. It requires setting standards, measuring performance against standard and taking corrective action as needed, incorporating specific activities into farm management practices.
Evaluating Skill: Evaluating skill in school farm management is a continuous process of determining the extent of achievement of objectives, limitation to achievement and further activities to be carried out to improve achieved results.
Olaitan (2006) included maintenance of soil fertility, control of soil erosion, weed, pest and disease control and feeding of livestock as part of farm management. The agricultural science teachers therefore in adding to the possession of these skills are supposed to have skills in soil management, plants and animal production, that would help him or her coordinate and control available resources and activities in the school farm for psycho-productive oriented teaching of the subject. Effective management of school farm therefore requires basic skills for planning, organizing, directing, controlling and evaluating.
The importance of skills for effective planning, organizing, directing, controlling and evaluating of the school farm is buttressed by the observation of Okorie (2006) who noted that physical resources of land, labour and capital cannot be productive unless they are organized and coordinated by someone who makes the necessary decisions and carries them out. In the case of the school farm management, the agricultural science teacher is supposed to be the decision maker, the organizer and coordinator of the learning experiences and activities his students will be exposed to, in order to achieve set goals. The extent to which teachers can perform these functions depends on the possession of management skills.
Okeke (2010) highlighted that one of the reasons why available farm resource materials are not utilized by agricultural science teachers in the secondary schools is that they lack necessary skills to operate them emphasizing that teachers should understand how to use and control resource materials such as the school farm and other facilities that could be derived therefrom. Similar observation was made by Nkajemeje (2007) who observed that lack of practical competencies on the part of agricultural science teachers was a factor inhibiting effective farm operations for educational benefits of the students. It therefore, becomes relevant for some concerted efforts to be made towards identifying the skills required by agricultural science teachers for effective management of school farm in public secondary schools in Ini Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
Agricultural Science is a pre-vocational subject in the junior and senior secondary schools respectively. The objective of this subject is to provide basic knowledge and skills that will prepare students either to perform in an occupation or to make a career in the chosen subject (FRN, 2013). These objective can only be realize when agricultural science teachers possess skills relevant for effective management of school farm. Deficiency of relevant skills in managing the school farm effectively among agricultural science teachers has been a major problem which has contributed to the poor management of the school farm, thereby inhibiting the actualization of the purpose which the school was served.
According to Osinem (2008), school farm is a miniature pilot farm where scientific findings, and innovations can be tried thoroughly and adjustments made before feedback is sent to researchers for improvement. The importance of school farm in skill development and acquisition of basic entry skills cannot be over-stressed. Olaitan and Ogbazi (2008) in support of the above statement, maintained that school farm provides an environment where theoretical aspects of agriculture taught in the classroom in respect of improved knowledge, skill and practices in agricultural production are tried out and put into real life situation. The school farm is also recognized as a laboratory for teaching agricultural practical lessons. It means that teachers are supposed to possess skills required to its effective management. A study by Agbulu (2010) on the management of school farms for improvement of the teaching of agricultural science in Benue State found that the school farms were not managed for improving the teaching of agricultural science. The findings also revealed that teachers taught only the theoretical aspects of the subject in the classroom due to lack of certain skills in managing the school farm effectively. The school farm has been perceived as very important for imparting manipulative skills to students. In achieving these, agricultural science teachers requires some level of competency in managing the school farm effectively.
Okorie (2006) defined skill as expertness, practical ability, dexterity, task and organized sequence of actions, proficiency executed and usually displayed in flexible but systematic temporal pattern. Skill in management of school farm, can be regarded as expertise or accuracy in carrying out tasks and activities that lead to efficiency or perfections in the performance of farm functions. The school farm is a laboratory for agricultural classes and for it to function effectively, it has to be well managed.
Management of school farm is defined as the process of planning, organizing, directing, controlling and evaluating activities in the farm to achieve specific objectives. These objectives include:
To demonstrate appropriate practices.
To provide valuable experiences to students.
To provide opportunities for co-ordinating classroom theory with practices.
To conduct some experiments.
Thieurauf and Collins (2008) saw management of school farm as a process of allocating the school farm input (human and material resource) through planning, organizing, directing and controlling for the purpose of accomplishing the school farm objectives. Ojukwu (2006) defined farm management as a skillful treatment towards crop and livestock production as well as the art of controlling the resources of producing crops and livestock.
Osuala (2009) explained the skills required by agricultural science teachers for effective management of the school farm to include the following:
Planning Skill: In school farm management, planning skill refers to the ability of the teacher to make an outline of the activities to be performed in the farm in order to achieve the objectives for which it is established. It is a process of deciding in the present what to do in the future about the best combination of crops and livestock to be raised through rational use of resources. It is deciding what is be done in the school farm and plan to accomplish it.
Organizing Skill: Organizing skill in school farm management is making arrangements whereby students, staff, space and materials are related to time and instructional objectives in coordinate instructional ways. It is also about deciding how the work is to be divided and coordinated.
Directing Skill: Directing skill in school farm management is leading, influencing and motivating students and teachers to perform essential tasks. It embraces working with and through others to achieve the school farm objectives.
Controlling Skill: Controlling skill in school farm management is the process of ensuring that actual activities in the farm conform to planned activities. It requires setting standards, measuring performance against standard and taking corrective action as needed, incorporating specific activities into farm management practices.
Evaluating Skill: Evaluating skill in school farm management is a continuous process of determining the extent of achievement of objectives, limitation to achievement and further activities to be carried out to improve achieved results.
Olaitan (2006) included maintenance of soil fertility, control of soil erosion, weed, pest and disease control and feeding of livestock as part of farm management. The agricultural science teachers therefore in adding to the possession of these skills are supposed to have skills in soil management, plants and animal production, that would help him or her coordinate and control available resources and activities in the school farm for psycho-productive oriented teaching of the subject. Effective management of school farm therefore requires basic skills for planning, organizing, directing, controlling and evaluating.
The importance of skills for effective planning, organizing, directing, controlling and evaluating of the school farm is buttressed by the observation of Okorie (2006) who noted that physical resources of land, labour and capital cannot be productive unless they are organized and coordinated by someone who makes the necessary decisions and carries them out. In the case of the school farm management, the agricultural science teacher is supposed to be the decision maker, the organizer and coordinator of the learning experiences and activities his students will be exposed to, in order to achieve set goals. The extent to which teachers can perform these functions depends on the possession of management skills.
Okeke (2010) highlighted that one of the reasons why available farm resource materials are not utilized by agricultural science teachers in the secondary schools is that they lack necessary skills to operate them emphasizing that teachers should understand how to use and control resource materials such as the school farm and other facilities that could be derived therefrom. Similar observation was made by Nkajemeje (2007) who observed that lack of practical competencies on the part of agricultural science teachers was a factor inhibiting effective farm operations for educational benefits of the students. It therefore, becomes relevant for some concerted efforts to be made towards identifying the skills required by agricultural science teachers for effective management of school farm in public secondary schools in Ini Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
Agricultural Science is a pre-vocational subject in the junior and senior secondary schools respectively. The objective of this subject is to provide basic knowledge and skills that will prepare students either to perform in an occupation or to make a career in the chosen subject (FRN, 2013). These objective can only be realize when agricultural science teachers possess skills relevant for effective management of school farm. Deficiency of relevant skills in managing the school farm effectively among agricultural science teachers has been a major problem which has contributed to the poor management of the school farm, thereby inhibiting the actualization of the purpose which the school was served.
According to Osinem (2008), school farm is a miniature pilot farm where scientific findings, and innovations can be tried thoroughly and adjustments made before feedback is sent to researchers for improvement. The importance of school farm in skill development and acquisition of basic entry skills cannot be over-stressed. Olaitan and Ogbazi (2008) in support of the above statement, maintained that school farm provides an environment where theoretical aspects of agriculture taught in the classroom in respect of improved knowledge, skill and practices in agricultural production are tried out and put into real life situation. The school farm is also recognized as a laboratory for teaching agricultural practical lessons. It means that teachers are supposed to possess skills required to its effective management. A study by Agbulu (2010) on the management of school farms for improvement of the teaching of agricultural science in Benue State found that the school farms were not managed for improving the teaching of agricultural science. The findings also revealed that teachers taught only the theoretical aspects of the subject in the classroom due to lack of certain skills in managing the school farm effectively. The school farm has been perceived as very important for imparting manipulative skills to students. In achieving these, agricultural science teachers requires some level of competency in managing the school farm effectively.
Okorie (2006) defined skill as expertness, practical ability, dexterity, task and organized sequence of actions, proficiency executed and usually displayed in flexible but systematic temporal pattern. Skill in management of school farm, can be regarded as expertise or accuracy in carrying out tasks and activities that lead to efficiency or perfections in the performance of farm functions. The school farm is a laboratory for agricultural classes and for it to function effectively, it has to be well managed.
Management of school farm is defined as the process of planning, organizing, directing, controlling and evaluating activities in the farm to achieve specific objectives. These objectives include:
To demonstrate appropriate practices.
To provide valuable experiences to students.
To provide opportunities for co-ordinating classroom theory with practices.
To conduct some experiments.
Thieurauf and Collins (2008) saw management of school farm as a process of allocating the school farm input (human and material resource) through planning, organizing, directing and controlling for the purpose of accomplishing the school farm objectives. Ojukwu (2006) defined farm management as a skillful treatment towards crop and livestock production as well as the art of controlling the resources of producing crops and livestock.

Osuala (2009) explained the skills required by agricultural science teachers for effective management of the school farm to include the following:
Planning Skill: In school farm management, planning skill refers to the ability of the teacher to make an outline of the activities to be performed in the farm in order to achieve the objectives for which it is established. It is a process of deciding in the present what to do in the future about the best combination of crops and livestock to be raised through rational use of resources. It is deciding what is be done in the school farm and plan to accomplish it.
Organizing Skill: Organizing skill in school farm management is making arrangements whereby students, staff, space and materials are related to time and instructional objectives in coordinate instructional ways. It is also about deciding how the work is to be divided and coordinated.
Directing Skill: Directing skill in school farm management is leading, influencing and motivating students and teachers to perform essential tasks. It embraces working with and through others to achieve the school farm objectives.
Controlling Skill: Controlling skill in school farm management is the process of ensuring that actual activities in the farm conform to planned activities. It requires setting standards, measuring performance against standard and taking corrective action as needed, incorporating specific activities into farm management practices.
Evaluating Skill: Evaluating skill in school farm management is a continuous process of determining the extent of achievement of objectives, limitation to achievement and further activities to be carried out to improve achieved results.
Olaitan (2006) included maintenance of soil fertility, control of soil erosion, weed, pest and disease control and feeding of livestock as part of farm management. The agricultural science teachers therefore in adding to the possession of these skills are supposed to have skills in soil management, plants and animal production, that would help him or her coordinate and control available resources and activities in the school farm for psycho-productive oriented teaching of the subject. Effective management of school farm therefore requires basic skills for planning, organizing, directing, controlling and evaluating.
The importance of skills for effective planning, organizing, directing, controlling and evaluating of the school farm is buttressed by the observation of Okorie (2006) who noted that physical resources of land, labour and capital cannot be productive unless they are organized and coordinated by someone who makes the necessary decisions and carries them out. In the case of the school farm management, the agricultural science teacher is supposed to be the decision maker, the organizer and coordinator of the learning experiences and activities his students will be exposed to, in order to achieve set goals. The extent to which teachers can perform these functions depends on the possession of management skills.
Okeke (2010) highlighted that one of the reasons why available farm resource materials are not utilized by agricultural science teachers in the secondary schools is that they lack necessary skills to operate them emphasizing that teachers should understand how to use and control resource materials such as the school farm and other facilities that could be derived therefrom. Similar observation was made by Nkajemeje (2007) who observed that lack of practical competencies on the part of agricultural science teachers was a factor inhibiting effective farm operations for educational benefits of the students. It therefore, becomes relevant for some concerted efforts to be made towards identifying the skills required by agricultural science teachers for effective management of school farm in public secondary schools in Ini Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.

SKILLS REQUIRED BY AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE TEACHERS FOR EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF SCHOOL FARM IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN INI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF AKWA IBOM STATE

SKILLS REQUIRED BY AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE TEACHERS FOR EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF SCHOOL FARM IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN INI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF AKWA IBOM STATE