AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE PROBLEM FACING SOCIAL STUDY TEACHERS ON LACK OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN TEACHING SOCIAL STUDY ( EDUCATION PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS)
1.1 Background of the Study
Social Studies was introduced in the Nigerian School Curriculum as part of the instrument for achieving national development (National Policy on Education (NPE) 2001). This was what informed its designation as part of the core curriculum at different levels of education in Nigeria. Social Studies curriculum development agencies such as the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) and experts further identified and disseminated the curriculum goals or purposes of the subject in the school curriculum. These include citizenship education, reflective inquiry and social science education, (Barth-shermis, 2000; Barth-Norris, 2006; Dubey and Barth, 2000; Olawepo, 2004) among others. These broadly stated goals must be clare to, and recognized as important as well as attainable by teachers and other participants connected with the Curriculum if the intentions or purposes must be realized and the investment of effort is to be considered worthwhile (Feather, 2002; Meece, Blumenfeld, & Hoyle, 2008). These intentions or purposes are prima facie stated with clarity, but their perception or conceptualization by teachers and scholars is still in doubt as Onyabe (2000) observed that the philosophy, content and methodology of social studies has remained vague to both scholars and teachers. The incidence of conflicting conceptions of social studies curriculum is a cause for concern for three major reasons. First, the anchor or strategic position of purposes or intentions in the curriculum development process (Pratt, 2004) as illustrated in Tyler (2009) (Linear) and Wheeler (2000) (cyclic) curriculum models, among others.
Social Studies is a subject that assists learners to become more competent for living in the modern world. It also enables them to develop insight into human relationship, social values and attitudes. For the above aims and goals to be achieved, teachers of Social Studies including the teachers need to bear in mind all necessary ingredients of learning, such as methods, techniques, devices and instructional materials that can be used for effective teaching and learning of the subject.Instructional materials are the essential tools needed to aid teaching and learning effectively and efficiently. Fadeiye (2005) saw instructional materials as visual and audio visual aids, concrete or non-concrete which the teacher uses to promote teaching and learning activities in Social Studies. Kochhar (2012) defined instructional materials as very significant learning and teaching tools. He stressed further that teachers should find necessary materials for instruction to supplement what the textbook provides in order to broaden concepts and arouse students’ interest in the subject. Oluwagbohunmi and Abdu-Raheem (2014)