STAFF APPRAISAL TECHNIQUES AND DEVELOPMENT OF OFFICE PROFESSIONAL SKILLS
- Background of the Study
Amstrong and Baron (2002), defined staff appraisal as an assessment of the actual performance of a subordinates during the past period, usually the proceeding year or half year based on predetermining set of criteria. However, staff appraisal is said to be the process or reviewing an individual’s performance and the progress in a job and the assessment of his potentials for further managerial decision. Such as, promotion, career planning and development. The development of individual strength and the overcoming of his weaknesses.
Okafor and Udu (2007), stated that staff always feel happy when their performance is appreciated. Thus, it is important that staff know what is expected of them and how they are rewarded. Staff appraisal provides the easiest way of measuring and determining the levels of development of office employees.
Bailey (1993), defined staff appraisal as the judgement of staff performance on his job, on the basis of other considerations rather than productivity alone. Usually, six monthly or annually, formalized and recorded review of the way in which an individual is performing in his own job by staff immediate boss, through behavioural observation scales, either individually or in a group.
Anugwom (2005), stated that staff appraisal or performance appraisal is the process of determining the succession, failures and effectiveness of staff in an organization towards the set goals. Appraisal can be used for promotion and rewards purposes, for determining training needs and counseling. He further stated that staff appraisal helps to access the performance of employees in order to determine those to be promoted, fired and to identify training needs.
Drucker (1974), stated that staff appraisal is the name given to the regular review in which an individual is performing in his or her job. Appraisal is the performance of an individual of an organization as an inherent aspect of managing human resources. Hence, staff appraisal is as old as management. In this century, rigorous scientific studies of appraisal techniques and methods have a history of over 50 years.
Obikeze, Obi and Abonyi (2005), defined as a systematic study of jobs that attempt to discover the major task dimensions of a job and what the job calls for in terms of staff behaviour and qualifications. Staff appraisal is very fundamental in that, it is an assessment that defines within the organization and the behaviours that are necessary to perform jobs.
Sikulla (1963), defined staff appraisal as the systematic evaluation of a worker’s job performance and potential for development. Appraisal is the process of estimating or judging the value, excellence, qualities, or status of some object, person or thing. The appraisal of individuals on an employment setting has been labeled and described over the years by personnel authors and practitioners on a number of different ways. Some common descriptions include performance appraisal, merit rating, behavioural assessment, employee evaluation, personnel review, progress report, service rating and fitness report. Some personnel specialists use such concepts interchangeably while others attach special interpretations to some of these appraisal phrase. Employee appraisal is part of all the other staffing sub processes.
Mcgregor (1960), stated that it has been established that a manager’s job is to achieve results through the use of people and other resources. In other words, a manager motivates his men to work at such a level as to be able to achieve the predetermined objectives of his department within the framework of the cooperate objectives. Here then is the importance of performance appraisal – which is a review of the employee’s performance based on the agreed objectives. Appraisal is or should be an integral part of the system of managing. Knowing how well a manager plans, organizes, staff, leads and controls is really the only way to ensure that those occupying managerial positions are actually managing effectively. If a business, a government agency, charitable organization, or even a University or Polytechnic is to reach its goals effectively and efficiently, ways of accurately evaluating management performance must be found and implemented.
- Statement of the Problem
Staff appraisal is the management tool used in organizations to an increasing extent as a means of ensuring proper understanding between individuals and proper coordination of efforts.