DETECTION AND PCR CHARACTERIZATION OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ENTEROTOXIN GENESFROM MASTITIC COW MILK AMONG SOME DAIRY HERDS IN ZARIA, KADUNA STATE

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DETECTION AND PCR CHARACTERIZATION OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ENTEROTOXIN GENESFROM MASTITIC COW MILK AMONG  SOME DAIRY HERDS IN ZARIA, KADUNA STATE

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Cow milk, a fresh, clean and normal mammary secretion is a good source of animal proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals to the human body. In addition, nutritionally less useful substances like enzymes are also present in normal milk. Some of the enzymes are used as indices in screening or quality control tests. In many homes in different geographical regions of the world, milk and milk products are fed to infants and form a major component of the diets of adults (Ruuw and Berts, 2004).

Mastitis is the inflammation of mammary gland and is a complex and costly disease in dairy herds (Husain etal., 2012; Atasever, 2012). Mastitis may have a variety of causes; Bacterial being the predominant cause of mastitis among dairy cattle (Wellenberg etal., 2002).

Mastitis manifestation can be of clinical or subclinical (Eriskine, 2001). Sub clinical mastitis are those in which no visible appearance of changes in the milk or udder, but milk production decreases, bacteria are present in the secretion and composition is altered (Eriskine, 2001). Clinical cases of mastitis are characterized by the presence of one or more of symptoms such as abnormal milk, udder swelling and systemic signs including elevated temperature, lethargy and anorexia (Eriskine, 2001).

Mastitis may be caused by a large variety of bacterial pathogens and other microbes entering the gland through the teat duct (Shitandi et al., 2004). The primary cause of mastitis in cattle, goats and sheep are well recognized group of microorganisms; Streptococcus spp. Staphylococcus spp. Pasteurella spp; and Coliforms (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp; and Klebsiella spp.)

One of the most common type of chronic mastitis is caused by Staphylococcus aureus (Jones et al., 1998). Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen of bovine mastitisworldwide. It has been reported by Lafi et al. (1994) that Staphylococcus aureus occurred predominantly in both clinical and sub clinical bovinemastitis.

Mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus is recognized worldwide in dairy cows as subclinical and clinical intramammary infection (Akineden et al., 2001). The infection is spread at milking time when S. aureus contaminated milk from an infected gland comes in contact with an uninfected gland, and the bacteria penetrate the teat canal. Moreover Ebliny et al. (2001) reported that S. aureus causes infection of longer duration.

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DETECTION AND PCR CHARACTERIZATION OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ENTEROTOXIN GENESFROM MASTITIC COW MILK AMONG  SOME DAIRY HERDS IN ZARIA, KADUNA STATE