STUDENTS IN THE ACADEMIC LIBRARY: CLIENT, CUSTOMER OR PATRON AND THE DIFFERENCE IT MAKES IN HOW WE REFER TO OUR USERS AND COMMUNITY OF STUDENT/FACULTY SCHOLARS

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

 LIBRARIES ARE THE KNOWLEDGE AND INFORMATION FOUNDATION OF ANY NATION. A LIBRARY COLLECTS, ORGANIZES AND MAKES INFORMATION RESOURCES ACCESSIBLE TO ALL KINDS OF USERS REGARDLESS OF THEIR AGES, BACKGROUND AND INTERESTS. ISLAM (2004) DEFINED LIBRARY AS A LEARNED INSTITUTION EQUIPPED WITH TREASURES OF KNOWLEDGE, MAINTAINED ORGANIZED AND MANAGED BY TRAINED PERSONNEL TO EDUCATE THE CHILDREN, MEN AND WOMEN CONTINUOUSLY AND ASSIST IN THEIR SELF IMPROVEMENT THROUGH AN EFFECTIVE AND PROMPT DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION. THERE ARE DIFFERENT KINDS OF LIBRARIES AND EACH PERFORMS DIFFERENT KINDS OF FUNCTIONS TO MEET THE DETERMINED PURPOSE AND NEEDS OF THE PEOPLE THEY SERVE (ODE AND OMOKARO 2007). THESE LIBRARIES INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING: ACADEMIC LIBRARIES, PUBLIC LIBRARIES, SPECIAL LIBRARIES, SCHOOL LIBRARIES, AND PRIVATE LIBRARIES. UWAIFO (2010) STATED THAT ACADEMIC LIBRARIES ARE THE ONES ESTABLISHED AND MAINTAINED BY HIGHER INSTITUTIONS OF LEARNING SUCH AS UNIVERSITIES, POLYTECHNICS, COLLEGES OF EDUCATION, SCHOOLS OF NURSING, PETROLEUM TRAINING INSTITUTES AND SCHOOLS OF HEALTH TECHNOLOGY. HE ALSO NOTED THAT THE ESSENCE OF ESTABLISHING AN ACADEMIC LIBRARY IS TO ENABLE IT SUPPORT THE CURRICULUM OF THE TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS WHICH ESTABLISHED IT. THEY ARE ESSENTIAL PART OF THE LEARNING COMMUNITY. HE WENT FURTHER TO STATE THAT THE ACADEMIC LIBRARY IS THE INFORMATION NERVE CENTRE OF ITS PARENT BODY. AINA (2004) STATED THAT THE MAIN PURPOSE OF ACADEMIC LIBRARY IS TO SUPPORT THE OBJECTIVES OF AN ACADEMIC ENVIRONMENT IN THE AREAS OF LEARNING, TEACHING AND RESEARCH SERVICE. JUBB AND GREEN (2007) OBSERVED THAT ACADEMIC LIBRARIES HAVE FOR CENTURIES PLAYED CRITICALLY IMPORTANT ROLES IN SUPPORTING RESEARCH IN ALL SUBJECTS AND 2 DISCIPLINES WITHIN THEIR HOST UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES. THE FOLLOWING ARE THE SERVICES PROVIDED BY AN ACADEMIC LIBRARY: CIRCULATION OF MATERIALS, SHELF MANAGEMENT, USER EDUCATION PROGRAMMES, PROVISION OF INFORMATION SERVICES, AND OPERATION OF THE ONLINE PUBLIC ACCESS CATALOGUE (OPAC), EXHIBITIONS AND DISPLAYS, READER’S ENQUIRY SERVICES, SELECTIVE DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION (SDI), TRAININGS AND INTERNET SERVICES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC SERVICES, INDEXING SERVICES, ABSTRACTING SERVICES, ACCESS TO ELECTRONIC RESOURCES AND DOCUMENT DELIVERY SERVICES. THE EFFECTIVENESS AND EFFICIENCY OF SERVICES PROVIDED BY AN ACADEMIC LIBRARY ARE MAINLY DETERMINED BY LIBRARY USERS. AINA (2004) RECOGNIZES THIS FACT WHEN HE STATED THAT THE USER IS VERY CRITICAL IN THE PRACTICE OF LIBRARIANSHIP. NO LIBRARY CAN EXIST WITHOUT THE PATRONS. THE ENTIRE HUMAN AND MATERIAL RESOURCES IN A LIBRARY ARE PUT IN PLACE AT CONSIDERABLE EXPENSE FOR THE OVERALL PURPOSE OF PROVIDING EFFECTIVE SERVICES TO THE LIBRARY USERS. ON ITS PART THE LIBRARY HAS A RESPONSIBILITY TO ENSURE THAT ITS RESOURCES AND SERVICES ARE USED (EDOKA, 2000). THE USER IS REGARDED AS THE MOST LOGICAL SOURCE TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE LIBRARY IS PLAYING ITS ROLE SATISFACTORILY OR NOT. THE MISSION STATEMENT OF ANY ACADEMIC LIBRARY SHOULD BE THE PROVISION OF EXCELLENT SERVICE TO ITS USERS. IN HIGHER INSTITUTION LIBRARIES THERE ARE VARIOUS CATEGORIES OF LIBRARY PATRONS. THEY ARE UNDERGRADUATES, POSTGRADUATES, LECTURERS, RESEARCHERS, EXTERNAL USERS FROM ALL WALKS OF LIFE AND MANY PROFESSIONS. HOWEVER, ACADEMIC LIBRARIES ARE FACED WITH THE NEED TO MARKET THEIR SERVICES TO USERS. LIBRARIES ARE NO LONGER THE ONLY INFORMATION PROVIDERS .THEY NOW HAVE TO COMPETE FOR CUSTOMERS WITH THE INTERNET, BOOKSHOPS, ONLINE BOOK DEALERS AND DEMAND FOR MORE EFFICIENT SERVICES AND NEEDS OF USERS. ACADEMIC LIBRARIES MUST UNDERSTAND CLIENTS NEEDS, PLAN SERVICE 3 PROVISION, PROMOTE THE AVAILABLE SERVICES AND DELIVER THEM EFFICIENTLY AND EFFECTIVELY. TO ACHIEVE THIS MARKETING IS THE ESSENTIAL TOOL. MARKETING HAS VARIOUS DEFINITIONS. SHARMA AND BHARDWAJ (2009) DEFINES MARKETING AS A TOTAL SYSTEM OF INTERACTING BUSINESS ACTIVITIES TO PLAN, PROMOTE AND DISTRIBUTE WANT SATISFYING PRODUCTS AND SERVICES TO PRESENT AND POTENTIAL CUSTOMERS. KOLTER (1994) DESCRIBED MARKETING AS A SOCIAL AND MANAGERIAL PROCESS BY WHICH INDIVIDUAL GROUPS OBTAIN WHAT THEY NEED AND WANT THROUGH CREATING, OFFERING AND EXCHANGING PRODUCTS AND SERVICES. A LIBRARY WITHOUT USERS IS USELESS. TO SUCCEED, THERE IS NEED TO LET THE USERS BE AWARE OF THE BENEFITS OF THE LIBRARY TO PROVISION OF INFORMATION RESOURCES AND SERVICES. MARKETING IS ABOUT KEEPING THE CLIENTS IN TOUCH AND INFORMED ABOUT RESOURCES AND SERVICES THAT MATCH THEIR INTERESTS. THE SUCCESS OF ACADEMIC LIBRARY MARKETING LIES MAINLY ON CONVINCING THE CLIENTS THAT THE TOOLS OR DATABASES ARE WORTHWHILE, THEY MUST UNDERSTAND WHAT THE SERVICES ARE, AND BE ENTHUSIASTIC ABOUT HOW THEY WILL BE HELPFUL (NOEL & WAUGH, 2002). LIBRARIANS NEED TO MARKET THEIR SERVICES AND RESOURCES FOR STUDENTS AND POTENTIAL USERS TO CREATE AWARENESS OF THE ACADEMIC LIBRARY’S VALUE. MAJOR SECTORS OF THE POTENTIAL MARKET FOR THE LIBRARY’S SERVICES ARE PROBABLY NOT AWARE OF ALL THE SERVICES AVAILABLE OR HAVE NO UNDERSTANDING AT ALL OF WHAT IS OFFERED. THAT’S WHY MARKETING IS VITAL TO THE SUCCESS AND EXISTENCE OF THE ACADEMIC LIBRARY. THE MAIN FOCUS OF EVERY LIBRARY SHOULD BE A GOOD CUSTOMER SERVICE. GOOD SERVICE CAN EQUAL A GOOD MARKETING CAMPAIGN, WHICH IS ANOTHER REASON WHY MARKETING IS IMPORTANT FOR LIBRARIES. EFFECTIVE MARKETING PROVIDES THE MEANS BY WHICH USERS ARE MADE AWARE OF THE SERVICES OF THE LIBRARY AND THEIR VALUE. MARKETING IN A LIBRARY SETTING HAS BEEN VIEWED FROM DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVE FOR INSTANCE RAVICHANDRAN AND BABU (2008) VIEWS MARKETING OF LIBRARY SERVICES AS THE PROCESS 4 OF PLANNING, PRICING, PROMOTING AND DISTRIBUTING LIBRARY PRODUCTS TO CREATE EXCHANGES THAT SATISFY THE LIBRARY AND THE CLIENTELE. NWEGBU (2005)DEFINES MARKETING IN LIBRARY SETTING AS DESIGNING AND PRESENTING THE LIBRARY BOOKS AND NON BOOK- MATERIALS IN TERMS OF THE NEEDS AND DESIRES OF THE USERS OF THE LIBRARY AND USING EFFECTIVE TECHNIQUES TO MOTIVATE, INFORM AND SERVICE THE LIBRARY CLIENTELE BOTH PRESENT AND POTENTIAL. WEIGARD (1995) VIEWS MARKETING IN LIBRARY AS A PROCESS OF EXCHANGE AND A WAY TO FOSTER THE PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN THE LIBRARY AND THE COMMUNITY. MARKETING OF LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SERVICES INCLUDES USER PRIORITIES, EXPECTATIONS, INDIVIDUALITY, RESPONSIVENESS, RELATIONSHIP, QUALITY OF SERVICES, PROFESSIONAL SKILLS, COMPETENCIES AND VALUE ADDED SERVICES ETC. BASANTA & SANJAH (2008) STATED THAT THE ULTIMATE AIM OF MARKETING IS TO PROVIDE THE RIGHT INFORMATION TO THE RIGHT USER AT THE RIGHT TIME. A USER ASCERTAINS THE EFFECTIVENESS AND EFFICIENCY OF A LIBRARY IS NOT BASED ON HOW LARGE THE LIBRARY IS OR THE NUMBER OF STAFF AND INFORMATION MATERIALS AVAILABLE, BUT ON THE SERVICES PROVIDED. LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION CENTRES HAVE REALIZED THAT MARKETING OF INFORMATION SERVICES IS ESSENTIAL. THIS IS BECAUSE INFORMATION HAS NOW BECOME A VERY VALUABLE RESOURCE. LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION CENTRE SHOULD INCULCATE MARKETING PRINCIPLES IN THE MANAGEMENT OF LIBRARIES. THE LIBRARIES AND THE LIBRARIANS MUST THEREFORE SHIFT THEIR FOCUS FROM THE INFORMATION PROVIDER TO THE INFORMATION USER (IWHIWHO, 2008). IN DOING THIS, THEY WILL BE ABLE TO ACHIEVE THEIR MISSION AND SERVE THEIR USERS BETTER IN THE PROVISION OF QUALITY SERVICES. LIBRARIANS MUST NOW ACT LIKE BUSINESS MEN BY PROVIDING QUALITY SERVICES AND PROMOTING THEIR SERVICES AT THE RIGHT TIME AND PLACE TO THEIR USERS. THE EMERGING TECHNOLOGICAL CHALLENGES AND SOCIETAL CHANGES POSE A THREAT TO LIBRARIES AS WORTHY INFORMATION PROVIDERS. AS A RESULT OF THESE CHALLENGES, IT IS NOW TIME FOR LIBRARIANS TO PROVE THAT THEY ARE INVALUABLE TO THE 5 CONTINUED SURVIVAL AND SUSTENANCE OF THEIR ORGANIZATIONS. THIS CAN BEST BE ACHIEVED BY ACTIVELY MARKETING THEIR SERVICES. IN ORDER TO SUCCESSFULLY MARKET LIBRARY SERVICES, THE MARKETING MIX MUST BE APPLIED. THE MARKETING MIX IS THE COMBINATION OF ELEMENTS WHICH ARE USED TO MARKET A PRODUCT OR SERVICE. THE MARKETING MIX INCLUDES THE FOLLOWING: PRODUCT, PRICE, PLACE AND PROMOTION. PRODUCT IN LIBRARY CONTENT IS DEFINED AS SERVICES OFFERED TO USERS TO SATISFY THEIR INFORMATION NEEDS. THE MAIN PRODUCTS PROVIDED BY INFORMATION PROFESSIONALS ARE: GIVING USER ASSISTANCE, SERVING AS MIDDLE MEN BETWEEN THE USERS AND THE RESOURCES OF THE LIBRARY WHICH INCLUDE INFORMATION SKILLS PROGRAMS, SELECTIVE DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION, USER EDUCATION SERVICES, PHOTOCOPY SERVICES, BIBLIOGRAPHICAL SERVICES, CATALOGUING SERVICES, REFERENCE SERVICES, PHOTOCOPYING SERVICES, CURRENT AWARENESS SERVICES AND INTERNET/COMPUTER SERVICES. THE SUCCESS OF THE LIBRARY DEPENDS ON THE QUALITY OF SERVICES AND PRODUCTS RENDERED TO USERS BUSHING (1995) SUPPORTED THIS STATEMENT WHEN SHE STATED THAT THE SUCCESS OF THE LIBRARY DEPENDS ON THE QUALITY AND EXCELLENCE OF ITS PRODUCTS. SHE CONTINUES THAT PRODUCTS INCLUDE ALL THE RESOURCES AND SERVICES AVAILABLE IN THE LIBRARY. THE PRICE IS THE COST OF PRODUCING THE PRODUCT. THE TIME IT TAKES A USER TO OBTAIN A PRODUCT IS REFERRED TO AS PRICE. LIBRARIES ARE NOT PROFIT MAKING ORGANIZATION. LIBRARIES USERS PAY INDIRECTLY FOR THE SERVICES THEY USE. THEY PAY THROUGH THEIR SCHOOL FEES, TAXES, GRANTS AND DONATIONS. THESE ARE ENOUGH REASONS TO SATISFY THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF USERS. TYPICALLY, THE DEVELOPMENT OF INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY HAS PROVEN THAT THE PLACE IS VERY IMPORTANT FACTOR IN A LIBRARY SETTING. THE INTERNET MAKES IT POSSIBLE FOR ANY LIBRARY TO OFFER SERVICES TO USERS AT ANY PART OF THE WORLD AND AT ANY TIME OF THE DAY. EVERY ACADEMIC LIBRARY MUST MAKE PROVISION FOR INTERNET CONNECTIVITY IN THEIR LIBRARIES. THE LIBRARY ENVIRONMENT AND STAFF MUST BE USER 6 FRIENDLY. PROMOTION SIMPLY MEANS INFORMING USERS ABOUT THE BENEFITS THEY WILL DERIVE IN USING LIBRARY RESOURCES AND SERVICES. THE FIVE ELEMENTS OF PROMOTION INCLUDES: ADVERTISING, PUBLIC RELATION, INCENTIVE AND ENVIRONMENT. NOLAN (1998) ADVISED LIBRARIANS TO BECOME ENTREPRENEURS. LIBRARIANS MUST NOT WAIT FOR PEOPLE WHO HAVE NO IDEA ON HOW LIBRARIES ARE MANAGED AND WHO DO NOT CARE ABOUT THEIR WORK TO CHANGE THEIR SITUATION FOR THEM. SHE ADVISES THAT LIBRARIES MUST RUN LIKE COMMERCIAL FIRMS AND PROFESSIONAL LIBRARIANS MUST BE MANAGERS. HOWEVER, IN OTHER TO ACHIEVE THESE LIBRARIANS AND INFORMATION PROFESSIONALS NEED TO BE VERY COMPETENT IN MARKETING OF LIBRARY SERVICES. THIS IS BECAUSE, IN EVERY WORK OF LIFE COMPETENCY IS THE KEY THAT IS USED TO FACE THE DEVELOPMENTAL CHALLENGES IN THE CORPORATE WORLD. (CHANDRA, 2011). THE SUCCESS OF A LIBRARY LARGELY DEPENDS ON THE LEVEL OF COMPETENCE THAT EXISTS AMONG THE LIBRARIANS IN THE LIBRARY. MAILESE, (1995) QUOTED AMARAL AND STATED THAT MANY LIBRARIANS LACK PROFESSIONAL UNDERSTANDING OF THE MARKETING CONCEPT AND ITS APPLICABILITY TO THEIR FIELD. THIS COULD BE AS A RESULT OF LACK OF ADEQUATE TRAINING AND EDUCATION ON MARKETING TO LIBRARIANS IN LIBRARY SCHOOLS. IT IS NOW VERY NECESSARY FOR MARKETING TO BE INTRODUCED IN LIBRARY SCHOOL’S CURRICULUM. ALSO FREQUENT SEMINARS, TRAININGS AND WORKSHOPS ON MARKETING AND INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY SHOULD BE ORGANIZED FOR LIBRARIANS. MARKETING OF LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SERVICES HAVE NOT BEING GIVEN MUCH ATTENTION IN MOST ACADEMIC LIBRARIES BECAUSE OF FUNDING. THE PROBLEM OF POOR FUNDING IS COMPOUNDED BY THE FACT THAT ACADEMIC LIBRARY ADMINISTRATION DOES NOT ALWAYS HAVE A TIMELY AND CONSISTENT BUDGET FOR MANAGEMENT OF LIBRARY NOT TO TALK OF ALLOCATING A BUDGET FOR MARKETING OF LIBRARY SERVICES. THERE IS ALSO UNRELIABLE AND INADEQUATE ACCESS TO INTERNET. ALSO, MOST LIBRARY MANAGEMENT DO NOT REALLY UNDERSTAND THE CONCEPT OF MARKETING THEY VIEW MARKETING AS JUST 7 APPLICABLE TO PROFIT ORGANIZATION AND NOT APPLICABLE TO LIBRARIES. IN VIEW OF THESE CHALLENGES ACADEMIC LIBRARIES NEED TO APPLY SOME TECHNIQUES IN MARKETING LIBRARY SERVICES. SUCH TECHNIQUES INCLUDE: CREATING A LIBRARY WEB PAGE, SENDING E-MAILS TO USERS, EXHIBITIONS AND DISPLAY OF NEW ARRIVALS, USE OF LEAFLETS AND POSTERS, ORGANIZING USER EDUCATION, PROVISION OF ELECTRONIC ACCESS TO INFORMATION AND ORGANIZING LIBRARY WEEK. ALSO FUNDS SHOULD BE ALLOCATED FOR MARKETING OF LIBRARY SERVICES. CONSEQUENTLY, THERE ARE 12 ACADEMIC LIBRARIES IN NIGER STATE. THE LIBRARIES INCLUDE THE FOLLOWINGS : FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY MINNA, IBRAHIM BADAMOSI UNIVERSITY LAPAI, FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC BIDA, NIGER STATE POLYTECHNIC, ZUNGERU, FEDERAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION KONTAGORA, NIGER STATE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION KONTOGORA, NIGER STATE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION MINNA, NIGER STATE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE MOKWA, FEDERAL COLLEGE OF FRESH WATER FISHERY TECHNOLOGY NEWBUSSA, FEDERAL COLLEGE OF WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT NEWBUSSA, NIGER STATE SCHOOL OF MIDWIFERY MINNA, NIGER STATE SCHOOL OF NURSING BIDA, AND JUSTICE FATI ABUBAKAR COLLEGE OF ARTS AND GENERAL STUDIES, MINNA. THESE LIBRARIES SUPPLEMENT THE TEACHING, LEARNING AND RESEARCH ACTIVITIES THAT GO ON IN THEIR VARIOUS ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS. HOWEVER, IN MOST OF THESE LIBRARIES THERE IS VERY LOW TURNOUT OF USERS. ACCORDING TO EXAMINATION AND RECORD DEPARTMENT AND THE LIBRARY ANNUAL REPORT OF FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY MINNA FOR 2008/2009 ACADEMIC SESSION THE TOTAL POPULATION OF UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS WAS 3830 WHILE 415 REGISTERED AS LIBRARY USERS. ALSO IN 2009/2010 ACADEMIC SESSION THE TOTAL POPULATION OF STUDENTS WAS 2675 WHILE THE REGISTERED LIBRARY USERS WERE 369. THE RESEARCHER INTERVIEWED SOME USERS TO FIND OUT WHY THEY DON’T USE THE LIBRARY AND THE USERS CLAIMED THAT THEY GET MORE RECENT INFORMATION FROM THE INTERNET. SEVERAL RESOURCES AND SERVICES EXISTING IN ACADEMIC LIBRARIES IN NIGER STATE ARE UNTAPPED. HOWEVER, OBSERVATION INDICATES THAT 8 MARKETING LIBRARY SERVICES IS NOT PROPERLY DONE IN ACADEMIC LIBRARIES IN NIGER STATE. THE SERVICES HIGHLY AVAILABLE AND MARKETED TO A MEDIUM EXTENT ARE LENDING SERVICES AND SEATING AND STUDY FACILITIES. THE RESEARCHER ALSO OBSERVED THAT IN MOST ACADEMIC LIBRARIES IN NIGER STATE THE MOST COMMON TECHNIQUE USED FOR MARKETING LIBRARY SERVICES IS EXHIBITION AND DISPLAY OF NEW INFORMATION MATERIALS. HOWEVER, IN OTHER TO ATTRACT LIBRARY USERS TO MAKE MAXIMUM USE OF THE LIBRARY, INFORMATION RESOURCES AND SERVICES PROVIDED TO PATRONS SHOULD SATISFY THEIR INFORMATION NEEDS. TO ACHIEVE THESE, LIBRARIES SHOULD PROVIDE USERS WITH ACCESS TO ELECTRONIC RESOURCES AND SERVICES AND THIS IS MARKETING. IN ORDER TO SUCCESSFULLY IDENTIFY, SATISFY, INFORM, EDUCATE AND SELL THE TRUE VALUE OF LIBRARY SERVICES TO USERS, LIBRARIES MUST PROVIDE SERVICES THAT ARE USER-ORIENTED. USERS SHOULD BE ENLIGHTENED ABOUT THE VARIOUS SERVICES FOUND IN THE LIBRARY AND HOW IT WILL MAKE THEM LIFE -LONG LEARNERS. IN ACHIEVING THESE, THE LIBRARIANS MUST APPLY THE MARKETING MIX WHICH INCLUDES PLACE,