STUDIES ON THE ABUNDANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF MOSQUITOES AND PREVALENCE OF MALARIA IN YABO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF SOKOTO STATE NIGERIA

0
5

STUDIES ON THE ABUNDANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF MOSQUITOES AND PREVALENCE OF MALARIA IN YABO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF SOKOTO STATE NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

Study was conducted to determine the abundance and distribution of mosquitoes and the prevalence of malaria parasites in Yabo Local Government Area. Mosquito breeding sites identification employed the use of a digital camera to snap pictures of areas where mosquitoes were observed. Mosquitoes eggs, larvae, pupa were collected and identified using the dipping method while indoor mosquitoes were caught from rooms,/toilets between the hours of 8 – 10pm using insecticide spray. A total of 370 blood samples were collected, analyzed using thick/thin films and stained using standard procedures. Twelve different mosquitoes breeding sites were identified. A total of 5,425 adult mosquitoes were caught, out of which 3,546 (65.36 %) were indoors and 1,879 (34.64%) caught outdoors. Statistical analysis conducted indicated significant difference (p< 0.05) between the two collections. Mosquitoes encountered belong to three genera of Anopheles, Culex and Aedes. The most predominant genus was Culex with a total of 5,967 (99.48%) adult mosquitoes, while Anopheles were 28 (0.52%) adult mosquitoes caught. Out of 370 blood samples examined, 118 (31.9%) were positive for malaria. The only plasmodium species encountered was Plasmodium falciparum with Kilgori district having the highest positives 76 (20.5%). Results showed that malaria infection is significantly recorded (P<0.05) in females 87 (23.5%), those aged 1 -9 years 33 (8.9%), and month of August 66 (17.8 %). Considering the medical importance of mosquitoes and malaria, information provided from this study will serve as basis for understanding the implication of mosquitoes nuisance and mounting effective control strategies against the vector and the disease.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Mosquitoes are insects belonging to the Phylum Arthropoda and Order Diptera. (Service, 1980; Cantwell, 2010). There are 3,100 known species of mosquitoes belonging to 35 genera which are further arranged into three sub-families. (Service, 1980). The distribution and population density of adult mosquitoes depend on a number of factors. These factors include, the behavioural patterns of the species, the prevailing climatic conditions of the area, the availability of breeding sites (i.e habitats) and food sources (Gilles and Warrel, 1993).

Mosquitoes are best known for their role in the transmission of diseases to man deepening on number of factors. Some of these factors are the vector potency of the arthropod in the replication of parasites within its body cavity as well as its ability to transmit the parasite to human during blood meal. Prevailing climatic conditions of the area as well as availability of breeding sites which enhances mosquitoes abilty to survive, breed and reproduce favourably (WHO, 2005a).

STUDIES ON THE ABUNDANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF MOSQUITOES AND PREVALENCE OF MALARIA IN YABO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF SOKOTO STATE NIGERIA

STUDIES ON THE ABUNDANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF MOSQUITOES AND PREVALENCE OF MALARIA IN YABO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF SOKOTO STATE NIGERIA