Communication within any organisation is vital for the achievement of organizational goals.  These are the processes that link the various composition of the organisation together.  They are found in all levels of the organisation and they affect every individual working for the organisation, in one way or another.  The effectiveness of communication medium.  The way in which it is managed has a significant impact on the ultimate effectiveness of the total organisation.

Communication has a major influence on both types of organizations goals, task and maintenance with respect to task or productivity, without provision for downward communications, employees would not know what to do.

Without adequate provision for upward communication, secretaries would not have the information needed to decide what to tell employees to do.

This project therefore examines the place of communication in secretarial functions of an organisation.




Although communication applies to all phases of effectiveness, it is particularly important in the function of leading.  People communication is the transfer of information from a sender to a receiver, with the information being understood by the receiver.  This definition then becomes the basis for the communication process model (discuss) in this project.  The model focuses on the sender of the communication the transmission of the message, and the receiver of the message.

The model also draws attention to noise, which interfer with good communication and feedback, which facilitates communication.  This chapter also examines the impact of the electronic media on communication.  It is no exaggeration to say that the communication function is the means by which organized activity is unified.  It may be looked upon as the means of which social inputs are fed into social systems.     Whether it is church, a family, a scout, troop, or a business enterprise the transfer of information from one individual to another is absolutely essential.

Over the years, the importance of communication in organized effort has been recognized by many authors, Chester I. Barnard for example, viewed communication as the means by which people are linked together in an organization to achieve a common goal.  This is still the fundamental function of communication.  Indeed, group activity is impossible without communication because coordination and charge cannot be effected.

Psychologists have also been interested in communication.  They emphasize human problem that occur in the communication process of initiating, transmitting, receiving information.  They have focuses on the identification of barners to good communication, especially those that involve the interpersonal relations of people, sociologists and information theorist as well as psychologist concentrated on the study of communication network.


The Ministry of Defence (MOD) is one of the most important and Strategic Federal Ministries which has been in operation prior to Nigeria’s Independence. The Ministry, Precisely came into being on 1st April, 1958, when the control of the Nigerian Military Forces was surrendered by the British War Office to the Government of Nigeria.  With this creation, the ministry of Defence became institutionally responsible for the administration of the Armed Forces Comprising of the Nigerian Army, the Nigerian Navy and the Airforce and comprising of the Nigerian Army, the Nigerian Navy and the Airforce which are collectively referred to as the Armed Services.  In addition to the services, the ministry also has under its umbrella the Defence Headquarters, the Defence Industries Corporation, the command and staff College, the Veteran Affairs Section and the National War College.

The Ministry of Defence Headquarters is headed by the Honourable Minister of Defence ably assisted by the permanent secretary.  The Civilian cell of the Ministry which operates through Departments in consonance with the 1988 Civil Service Reforms has eight (8) Departments and three units, while the military cell comprises of the Armed Forces.  The Civilian Cell provides supportive services to the Armed Forces in order to ensure their combat readiness.  The eight (8) Departments and the three units of the civilian cell of the Ministry are as following:

a.           Personnel Department

b.           Finance and Supplies Department

c.            Planning Research and Statistics Department

d.           Joint – Services Department

e.            Army Affairs Department

f.             Navy Affairs Department

g.            Airforce Affairs Department

h.           Veteran Affairs Department

i.             Legal; Audit and information units.

The Armed Services cell of the Ministry Comprises the following:-

a.           Defence Headquarters

b.           Nigerian Army Headquarters

c.            Naval Headquarters

d.           Nigerian Airforce Headquarters

e.            Defence Institutions like the NDA, War College and CSC, Jaji.

f.             Defence Parastatals like Dicon Kaduna, Tafawa Balewa Square Investment Limited Lagos.

The Overall Policy Objectives of the Ministry of Defence include the following:-

a.           Maintaining men of the Nigerian Armed Forces in a state of combat readiness on land Sea and Air.

b.           Maintaining a proper balance in Arms and Men to meet the needs of Internal and external Security of the Country.

c.            Making Provision for the welfare of the men of the Armed Forces in terms of training, accommodation, health care and other benefits aimed at boosting their morale.

d.           Enhancing the capability and sophistication of the country’s Defence Industries in order to rescue the country’s dependence on foreign sources of supply.

Each of the Armed Services – Army, Navy and Airforces has its own peculiar history which explains its evolution, with the Defence Headquarters being at apex of the Armed Forces hierarchy.  As with other military organizations the world over, the creation of Defence Headquarters (DHQ) was predicated on the need to have an Organ with the Nigerian Armed Forces whose primary role would be to harmonise and co-ordinate the activities of the 3 services.  This aspect of the Armed Forces hierarchy came into existence with the creation of the office of the Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) by the 1979 constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.  The CDS formally took office in April 1980.  The Defence Headquarters was however abolished with the change of Government in 1983.  In 1985, it was re-established as Joint Chief of Staff Headquarters and headed by a Chairman. As the military embarks on restructuring and preparation for civil rule, the Defence Headquarters along with the office of CDS, recognized in the constitution was re-introduced with effect from September 1990.  In its basic concept therefore, the DHQ is tasked with the duty of removing operational bottlenecks in interservice combat functions by giving firm policy guidelines on command, control communications and intelligence.  Other tasks of the DHQ include general administration and attending to the logistics needs of combat forces.  The operational, logistics, training, planning, intelligence, administration and information are co-ordinated by five Departments namely:

Department of Training, Operations and Plans, Department of Logistics, Department of Administration and Defence Intelligence Agency.

The ministry of Defence takes responsibility for matters that are of common interest to the three armed services on training, welfare, procurement, international engagements.