TABLE OF CONTENT
APPROVAL PAGE iii
TABLE OF CONTENT vi
LIST OF TABLES x
LIST OF APPENDICES xi
CHAPTER ONE 1
1.1 Background of the study 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 5
1.3 Purpose of the Study 6
1.4 Research questions 7
1.5 Hypotheses 7
1.6 Significance of the study 7
1.7 Scope of the study 8
1.8 Definition of terms 9
CHAPTER TWO 10
LITERATURE REVIEW 10
2.1 Theoretical Review 10
2.1.1 Lev Vygotsky Social Learning Theory (1962) 10
2.1.2 Jerome Brunner’s Cognitive Theory (1985) 12
2.2 Conceptual Review 14
2.2.1 Jigsaw learning strategy 14
2.2.2 Conventional method of Teaching 17
2.2.3 Basic Science as a Discipline. 19
2.2.4 Students Academic Performance in Basic Science 22
2.2.5 Gender differences in student’s academic achievement 25
2.3 Empirical Review 27
2.4 Summary of Reviewed literature 30
CHAPTER THREE 33
RESEARCH METHOD 33
3.1 Research design 33
3.2 Area of the Study 33
3.3 Population of the Study 34
3.4 Sampling and Sampling Technique 34
3.5 Instrumentation 34
3.5.1 Validation of the instrumentation 34
3.5.2 Reliability of the instrument 35
3.6 Procedure for data collection 35
- 7 Method of Data Analysis 35
CHAPTER FOUR 37
4.1 Answering the Research Questions 37
4.2 Testing the Hypotheses 39
4.3 Summary of findings 41
4.4 Discussions of the findings 41
CHAPTER FIVE 44
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 44
5.1 Summary 44
5.2 Educational Implications of the findings 45
5.3 Conclusion 46
5.4 Recommendations 46
5.5 Limitation of the study 47
5.6 Suggestion for Further Study 47
LIST OF TABLES
Table Title Page
Table 1: Mean and standard deviation scores of students’ academic achievement based on teaching methods 37
Table 2: Mean and standard deviation of male and female students’ achievement in pretest posttest score based on Jig Saw teaching strategy. 38
Table 3; ANCOVA results of data on students taught changes in matter achievement posttest score based on teaching methods. 39
Table 4: ANCOVA result on male and female student’s academic achievement taught using jig saw learning strategy. 40
1.1 Background of the study
No nation can afford to neglect science education at any level and hope to thrive in any field of human endeavor (Olatoye, 2017). In an attempt to facilitate higher academic achievement among Science students, Federal Ministry of Education through the National Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC, 2012) introduces Basic Science into Secondary Schools with the objectives that Basic Science would enable learners to:
Develop interest in science and technology
Acquire Basic knowledge and skill in science and technology
Apply scientific and technological knowledge and skills to meet contemporary societal needs
Become prepared for further studies in Science and Technology
Avoid drug abuse and related vices
Be security conscious
Basic Science is the first form of science a student encounters at the Basic school level; hence, it prepares students at the Junior Secondary school level for the study of core science subjects at the Senior Secondary school level (Bukunola & Idowu, 2012). This implies that for a student to study single science subjects at the Senior Secondary school level successfully, such a student must be well grounded in Basic Science at the upper basic school level (Samuel, 2017). Basic Science is also an approach to science in which the fundamental unity of science is stressed while the traditional boundaries between sciences related courses are eliminated. Basic Science subjected has enjoyed a wide range of acceptance among science educators since it is expected to lay adequate foundation for progress and success in the various disciplines in science such as Biology, Physics, and Chemistry amongst others. Oludipe (2012) emphasized that for a student to be able to study single Science subject at the senior secondary school level successfully such a student has to be well grounded in Basic science at upper level. The teaching of Basic science in Nigerian Junior Secondary Schools needs to be properly handed.
Learning strategies refer to methods that teachers uses in teaching, this ranges from techniques to improved memory to better studying or test taking strategies. Learning strategies used by teachers to teach and drive home their subject points at the junior secondary school levels of our education system is important in practical classroom interaction and successful transfer of knowledge from the teacher to the learners. Learning strategies are methods which assist teacher to make their lessons explicit to learner, they are also used to transmit information ideas and notes to learners. Junior Secondary School is foundation of the Childs formal educational development to senior secondary, the quality of teaching at this stage will not only influence the child’s rate of learning, but will be a very large extend to determine the quality and direction of his academic and career later in life. This underscores the need to make teaching and learning very interesting, stimulating and meaningful to the learner. One of the ways of achieving this is through the proper learning strategy used by the teacher. Thus, the strategy that will help the students to familiarize with the contents of instruction, increase their interest, empower them with sufficient level of Basic science proficiency and enhance their active participation in the subject and also efficacious in improving their interaction with the environment are highly needed. Hence this study focused on improving students’ interest in Basic science through cooperative collaborative strategies that promote class interaction and participation.
One of such strategies is the Jigsaw. It is a cooperative learning technique in which students work in small groups of four to six (Aronson 2008, Lestik & Plous 2012, Hakkarainen, 2012). It is used to develop the skills and expertise needed to participate effectively in group activities which also focuses on listening, speaking, co-operation, reflection, and problem solving skills in the students (Bratt, 2008; Hakkarainen, 2012). Jigsaw strategy, according to Gregory (2013) can be used for students by giving them different materials and content to match different levels of readiness.
According to Aronson (2000), jigsaw is a cooperatives learning strategy that enables each students of a group to specialize in one aspect of a learning unit. Students meet with members from other groups who are assigned the same aspect and after mastering the material, return to main group and teach this material to the group member. Jigsaw learning strategy can be used whenever teaching materials that are segmented into separate components. The advantage of Jigsaw learning strategy is that students perform the challenging and engaging tasks in their experts group with enthusiasm since they know they are the only ones with that piece of information when they move to their respective groups. Jigsaw strategy is a cooperative group activity in which students are interdependent to achieve a common goal, the group member becomes expert on that prompt and creates group response, and the success of the group depends on each individual and therefore prompts engagement from individual students. What is great about jigsaw learning strategy is that it naturally diminishes both those challenges whole increasing individual and group accountability. It also provides a mechanism for differentiated instruction, whether it is students needing conversations with others, more time or the ability to ask the teacher question. It also helps students who got it and mentally check out because they are expected to help their group members understand the materials. The jigsaw learning strategy offers a variety of benefits for the students such as an increase in active participation in the course, self-esteem and focused attention spans Kordaki & Siempos (2010). Students become more interactive with each other compared with conventional method of teaching, The jigsaw strategy allows for the creation of an atmosphere where the students actively participate more in the course and takes ownership over their learning Hedeem (2013).students are able to deeply understand the lessons when they learned in a smaller and meaningful group (Huang,et al,2014).jigsaw learning strategy can be used to teach some of the topics in junior secondary schools.
1.2 Statement of the problem
There are many methods, techniques and strategies in impacting knowledge to students but there is no need to deny the fact that not all the learning strategy adequately promotes students understanding. Due to individual differences, teachers owe it as a duty to employ varieties of techniques in teaching and learning in order to offset the problem of boredom and more importantly enhance students understanding of what is taught. Unfortunately, some teachers do not want any change in their mode of delivery. The stick to the conventional method of teaching and most of the times dictate notes for students to copy students realize that the group is more effective if each student is allowed to present his or her own materials before question and comments are made if that is not done. Dominance is eventually reduced because students realize it is not in the best interest of the group but for all the students. Another problem is a slow student in the group, It is important that each member presents the best possible report to the group. It was observed that most of the teachers used methods such as conventional methods, lecturing methods, note copying and sometimes questions and answers method in teaching. The question and answer techniques is quite good but they were not used properly, the worse of it all was the note copying and the conventional method.
They are therefore denied the good opportunity of learning in groups and all its associated benefits. Some of the students clearly demonstrated lack of understanding of what were taught because the teacher most often does the talking. Students who do not get the opportunity to learn in groups tend to become antisocial and would always like to do things in isolation. The above then prompted the researcher to find out the effect of Jigsaw learning strategy on academic achievement of Junior Secondary School Students in Basic Science in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of the study is to examine The Effect of Jigsaw Learning Strategy in Students Academic Achievement in Basic Science in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area. Specifically the objective was to:
To determine the difference that exists in the academic achievement of students taught changes in matter using Jigsaw learning strategy and those taught using conventional method.
To determine the difference that exists in the academic achievement of male and female students taught changes in matter using Jigsaw learning strategy.
1.4 Research questions
What difference exit in the academic achievement of students taught changes in matter using Jigsaw learning strategy and those taught using conventional method?
What difference exit in the academic achievement of male and female students taught changes in matter using Jigsaw learning strategy?
The following are the hypotheses to guide this study:
There is no significant difference exit in the academic achievement of students taught changes in matter using Jigsaw learning strategy and those taught using conventional method.
There is no significant difference in the academic achievement of male and female students taught changes in matter using Jigsaw learning strategy.
1.6 Significance of the study
The findings from this study will be beneficial to junior secondary schools students in Basic science to arouse the interest of the learners. The outcomes of the study will help Basic science teachers to appreciate female students that can perform well in Basic science by the use of appropriate learning strategies and thus have positive attitude towards female students in Basic science. This study will help junior secondary school teachers to identify the learning strategy that will enhance academic achievement in Basic science. The head teacher and the heads of department will benefit from this study on how to support the teachers on the use of appropriate learning strategy. This study will also inform the teachers about effective teaching strategy in the preparation of the teacher’s thereby enhancing student’s academic achievement in Basic science. This study is also be beneficial to education officers and also policy makers in deciding on the appropriate learning strategy for learners to improve the student’s Basic science achievement.
1.7 Scope of the study
This study is limited to JSS 2 Basic science students in public schools in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Moreover, the effectiveness of jigsaw learning strategy in students’ academic will be looked into. Although this study is meant for all students in Mkapt Enin Local Government Area in Akwa Ibom State.
1.8 Definition of terms
Basic Science: is also an approach to science in which the fundamental unity of science is stressed.
Jigsaw: It refers to a grouping strategy in which members of the class are organized into learning groups called “Home groups” and then rearranged in new groups to share their learning.
Jigsaw learning strategy: This is where each student of a “home” group specializes in one aspect of a learning unit. Students meet with members from other “home” groups and teach the material to their group members (Aronson, 2000.)
Conventional teaching methods: Refers to learning/teaching methods that teachers frequently use and have used for a long time (The Free Dictionary, 2012). In this study it refers to the ordinary teaching methods used to teach basic science which are mainly teacher centered.
Expert group: an expert is a person with special knowledge, skill or training in something (the free dictionary, 2012). In this study it refers to a group of students with identical assignments who come together for discussion.
Learning: is the knowledge you get from reading and studying.