TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Approval page ii
Table of contents v
Background of the study 1
Statement of the study 2
Objectives of study 4
Research question 4
Significance of study 5
Scope of study 5
Limitation of study 5
Operational definition of terms 6
Review of Related Literature
Abraham H. Maslow’s Hierarchy Needs Theory 10
Clayton P. Modified Need Theory (ERG) 12
Herzberg Two Factor Theory 15
McGregor Theory X and Y Theory 18
J. S. Adam’s Theory 21
Victor H. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory 24
The Causal Chain and Motivation 28
Motivation and Performance 30
Achievement Motivation 32
Job Design 36
Job Rotation 37
Job Enlargement 37
Job Enrichment 37
Leadership Style 42
Performance Appraisal 46
Management By Objective (MBO) 50
Compensation and Motivation 52
Research design 57
Area of the study 57
Population of the study 58
Sample and sampling technique 58
Reliability and validity 59
Data collection 59
Method of data analysis 60
Presentation and data analysis
Organisation of data 62
Analysis of data 62
Data interpretation 67
Results and discussion 70
Summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations
Summary of findings 71
Suggestion for further studies 73
The purpose of this research was to investigate the impact of staff motivation on job performance. The Petroleum Training Institute, Effurun (PTI), Warri in Delta State, was chosen for the study to enable the researcher to compare and contrast and make general statement on staff motivation on job performance. In this study, two hypotheses were formulated and tested to guide the study (i) there is a relationship between staff motivation and job performance; (ii) the staff in PTI are more likely to be motivated by monetary incentives than any other incentives. The literature review comprised of relevant seminar papers, journals, unpublished texts and publishes textbooks, which helped strengthen the issues raised. Questionnaires were developed and administered to staff members of the PTI. One hundred and fifty questionnaires were distributed in the organisation. Out of the total retrieved, one hundred (100) were used for the analysis. Based on the data collected and analysed, it was found that regular promotion, conducive working environment incentives such as car loans, bonus for excellent performance, ownership housing scheme, high wage or salary and numerous others would all motivate staff to improve on their performance in the organisation. It was found that “high wage or salary” motivates the Nigerian worker more than anything else. It was so established that there is a positive relationship between motivation and job performance in the organisations; indicating that, though the motivational needs in the organisations varied in some aspects vis-a-vis the nature of the organisations, they all tended towards improved job performance the organisations. This is because, the analysis in the organisation showed a positive relationship in the hypotheses tested. Finally, the research results showed us the problems and circumstances militating against improved performance of jobs by staff in the organisation. Solutions were then recommended to enhance improved job performance and to obviate deterioration on job performance.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The human factor (man) is the most complex and most important factor to the success of any organisation. It determines the fortunes or misfortune of the organisation. Because of its (man) strategic importance, it has becomes increasingly imperative for Human Resource managers to seek for means and ways of getting individual employees united and committed towards the attainment of set goals and objectives. Most managers however, tend to overlook the impact which motivation has on individual employee performance and in the process, jeopardize organisational goals.
To actually determine the potential capacity of employees, researchers have resorted to investigating what really influences job performance of employees. The intent of such study is to provide an insight into factors which influences job performance of workers.
There are several factors which could influence job performance, since human beings behave in different ways, so are their various needs. All sorts of factors can be listed including money, good working conditions, interesting work, a chance to do something one likes, and an opportunity for growth and development. These factors may impair the job performance of employees if not well appreciated. However, if we are to look for one overriding theme in motivation, it might well be need satisfactions. By this, I mean that people have desires or need that requires satisfaction. If the organisation provides the means for meeting these needs, it can motivate its employees.
Having stated that one of the key elements in human resource capital management is motivation, what then can be said to be the motivational factors which has influenced employees either to perform positively or negatively in their various jobs. Over the years, taking the Petroleum Training Institute (PTI) as a case study for the research work. But before then, there are some theories, which would guide the understanding of the needs of employees in an organisation which if, pried into by employers, will go a long way to enhance high productivity of employees.
To this end, the works of some social scientist, which have postulated some theories about motivational techniques would be attempted. Such theories of motivation include Abraham Maslow needs theory of motivation, Fredericks Herbergs two factor theory,
Douglas McGregor theory X and Y, Alderjer modified theory, Victor Vroom expectancy and Adams equity theories are the few motivation theories that would be examined in this study.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
For a long time, there has been great concern about the poor performance and lukewarmness of employees in several organisations. Opinions on the causes of poor performance of employees in their work place had varied overtime. Some are of the opinions that, employees are inefficient, others say that employees are slow, lazy and waste time over given tasks. Most times, these have been passing comments which had required conscious investigations on how to get employees to work willingly and enthusiastically performing their jobs in order to achieve organisational goals. In some occasions, employees perform poorly when it is glaring to them that they have been cheated or deprived of their rights and privileges. This is a problem that employers need to tackle vigorously if management is desirous to attain organisational goals.
The problem therefore bothers on the inability of many organisations to sufficiently induce their employees towards the attainment of set organisational objectives. A lot have been said and written on the subject motivation; in spite of this, employers of labour have not fully embraced motivational techniques as a way .and means to encourage their employees for greater performance in their jobs. For instance, most organisations still adopt pay policy that are not commensurate with what is obtainable in their industry. Effective job performance requires staff whose basic needs are met otherwise, it would results in disillusionment and frustration to the staff and consequently leads to or brings about low job performance. It is therefore imperative for managers to have knowledge of what a worker wants from his job and this knowledge is essential for personnel policies and practices. In this vain, this research study will examine fully the impacts of staff motivation on job performance and X-ray how much of modern management techniques of motivation are employed by employers of labour for positive outcomes.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The objectives of the study are as follows:
To determine the paramount needs of the employees and what can induce them to perform their jobs well.
Identify (if any) differences between the motivational needs of employees in organisations especially PTI.
Help employers of labour to ascertain from time to time the motivational needs of their staff in order to bring out the best in them.
To contribute, stimulate and encourage future research into the phenomenon (staff motivation), so as to improve knowledge and understanding on the subject matter.