THE EFFECT OF PARTICLE SIZE ON THE EXTRACTION OF OIL FROM GROUNDNUT

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ABSTRACT

This project was done to extract and characterize groundnut oil according to their particle sizes. The experiment was carried out using  groundnut (i.e. ‘’, ‘Ijilizi’or ‘Azamu’) as sample. The oils were extracted by solvent extraction /leaching extraction using n-hexane. Proximate analysis was carried out to obtain percentage moisture content, ash content, total oil content, protein content and carbohydrate content of the extracted oils. From observation, it was noticed that as the diameter of the sieve decreased, the quantity of oil obtained increased

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page………………………………………………………. i

Certification……………………………………………………ii

Dedication……………………………………………………… iii

Acknowledgement…………………………………………….. iv

Abstract………………………………………………………… v

Table of contents………………………………………………. vi

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction……………………………………………………..1

Background of study…………………………………………….1

Problem of statement…………………………………………….4

Objectives of study………………………………………………5

Significance of study…………………………………………….5

Justification of study…………………………………………….6

CHAPTER TWO

Literature review………………………………………………7

Preamble……………………………………………………….7

Importance of oils………………………………………………8

Proximate composition of oil…………………….…………….10

Moisture content …………………………….…………………11

Ash content………………………………………………………11

Crude protein……………………………………………………12

Crude fat…………………………………………………………12

Crude fibre………………………………………………………13

Carbohydrate…………………………………………………….13

Concept of vegetable oil extraction………………………………14

The role of moisture and temperature in oil extraction………….14

Traditional extraction of vegetable oil………………….………..16

Solvent extraction of vegetable oil/leaching method…………….17

Solvent characteristics……………………………………………18

Mechanical expression of vegetable oil…………..………………22

Quality oil assessment……………………………………………23

Objective method of assessing oil quality………………………..24

Properties of oil…………………………………………………..25

CHAPTER THREE

Materials and method……………………………………………..28

Raw materials and equipment used……………………………….28

Equipments…………………………………………………………29

Reagent ……………………………………………………………29

Oil extraction and separation experiments…………………………29

CHAPTER FOUR

Result and discussion………………………………………………31

Experimental results……………………………………………….31

CHAPTER FIVE

Conclusion and recommendation……………………………………37

Appendixes…………………………………………………………..39

References……………………………………………………………42

CHAPTER ONE

  1. INTRODUCTION
  1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

There has been an increase in the world production of oilseeds over the last thirty years (Murphy, 1994); this would appear to be related to the increasing demand for oilseed products and by-products as oilseeds are primarily grown for their oil and meal.

Oils from most edible oilseeds are used in the food industry, though there is growing emphasis on industrial utilization as feedstock for several industries with about 80% of the world production of vegetable oils for human consumption. The remaining 20% utilization is between animal and chemical industries (Murphy, 1994).

According to Rajagopal et al. (2005), bio-oils from oilseeds are used as Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) or as biodiesel (trans esterified oil) depending on type of engine and level of blend of the oil;  groundnut oil i.e. , Ijiliji, or Azamu is found mainly in the South-East of Nigeria and is not an exception. This phenomenon has created a school of thought that it is better to use oilseeds as bio-fuel, which will lessen the competition for fossil fuels, which are not renewable. Fossil fuels are not only costly in terms of price but are also costly to the environment as they degrade land, pollute water and cause a general destabilization of the ecosystem with global warming as an end result. Furthermore, crude oil wields socio-political power that often dictates the pace of economic growth in specific locations, especially non-oil producing nations.

Nevertheless, the petroleum industry requires a greater quantity of oil to meet its demand.

THE EFFECT OF PARTICLE SIZE ON THE EXTRACTION OF OIL FROM GROUNDNUT