This study centers on the effect of socio-economic background of Adolescent students on the academic achievement in senior secondary schools in Udi education zone, of Enugu state. In investing the above, data were obtained through questionnaire administration method. Also, libraries and internet the percentage analysis method was used to analyzed the responses elicited from respondents and meaningful conclusion draw there from. It was discover that factor like the academic achievement of an adolescent is greatly influenced by adolescent socio-economic background, the family size and parent educational attainment. Recommendation were made based on the discovering to ensure positive performance of the adolescents.



1.1 Background of the Study

Education has been defined as the process of teaching, training and learning to improve knowledge and develop skills, attitude and moral. It prepares a person’s ability for future benefits in life if properly channeled. In other words, education helps a person to develop his talents fully, prepares him to be a responsible citizen and gives him the stimulus and opportunity for cultural enrichment of his life. Upon his background, it becomes pertinent to investigate the effect of socio-economic background of adolescents students in their senior secondary school certificate examination. The major goal of education therefore is to ensure proper development of the child, such that he can fit-in and function in the society. Since education starts from birth to death, it occupies an important place in the life of every individual and the academic performance of the school child as a function of how well a child is doing ion school.

Malluw and Haggi (2000) stated that academic performance is the measure of the level of knowledge skills, attitudes and aptitude of a child in an examination. Since the family is the cradle of every life, a child that is nurtured in environment (family) which socially and academically non-stimulating would make the child intelligent quotient to be low. Over the years, inspite of the efforts of students in their academic study, the academic performance of students in senior-secondary school certificate examination especially in science and social science subjects is very alarming. Those Onuchukwu (2005) identified has direct relationship with parents socio-economic background. He further stated that students academic achievement depends largely on parents encouragement of private lesson provision of learning aids at home, lovely/mental health, provision of balanced diets and discouragement of exam-malpractice and all these depends on the adolescent socio-economic background.

According to Ezewu (1983) the socio economic states of a family has been acknowledged to affect positive or negatively the schooling of the higher the socio-economic states of a family the more likely it motivates the child to learn at school and consequently to succeed in learning. He also stated that students from family high class positions in Nigeria such as medical professional, engineers, politicians etc. stand the chance of performing better than those of low class positions. Slavin (1994) reported a study that clearly showed the impact of social class on academic developments. Students from different social class and background achieve quite different during the school years. After a long term holidays, children from poor families lost much of their achievements unlike those from rich family who even gain more due to private teachers employed during and after holidays, provision of leaving and teaching materials. Looking at this study, the researcher’s argument is that the children from poor homes are not exposed to a wide variety of learning experiences in and outside their homes. Onuchukwu (2005) in his study, revealed that no matter how potentially intelligent, that a child need a good and comfortable environment to leave. He maintained that, if the environment is not conducive his intelligent would either be dwarfed or not utilized to its full potentials. Woolfolla (1998) stated in his findings that socio-economic status of the family is an important factor in determining how much pressure parents are likely to put on their children to achieve academic excellent in school. Agularia and Nwachukwu (2001) agreed that the adolescent socio-economic status is likely to have profound impact on their attitudes and behaviours in school. They observed that children from middle and high class families enter school knowing how to count and name letters.

They also revealed that English Languages is introduced at very early stage of development, which they believe enhances learning. This is because in these class of homes there may be such facilities as television set, radio, pictures, reading and writing materials, toys and games all of which helps to prepares these children for upward leaving in school than children from low class families who have no such opportunities. Further study by Odebunmi (1988) showed a significant relationship between performance of students and their parental level of education. The researcher, argued among other things that parental supervision of the children’s work at home help to account for the relationship. Ezeh, (2007) in his study reveals that poor illiterate parent especially where there is difficulties. This he believed was as a result that illiterate parents cannot offer what they do not have. Alhassan (1993) listed parents illiteracy as one of the causes of truancy and how academic performance among adolescent students. Apart from parents level education, the impact of family size of the student determines the extent of the student determines the extent of foundation given. Awoyemi (1986) discovered substantial relationship between the number of siblings in the family and children’s academic performance.

Onuchukwu (2005) observed that adolescent who inherited high level of intelligent quotient (I.Q) has greater success in academic achievement, but it s tentative. This he stated is because where an individual with high I.Q fails to observed the principles or conditions for effective learning, another person who may have been assessed to have low quotient, provide with comfortable environment for learning will perform better with time. Central to the determination of standards education are four key factors Ocho (2005). The learner his values, motivation, have background and this preparedness. The teacher his behavior, motivation, knowledge and skills, his commitment. The curriculum: its relevance, appropriateness and comprehensiveness. The learning environment: its conduciveness and available of learning materials (interest).

Recently, Obasi (1999) investigated the influence of student family background on their academic achievements. The findings revealed that the socio-economic status of the family had no significant influence on the academic performances of the student. Due to these contradictory findings, there is need for further research work before a definite and dependable statement is made on the issue, it is in the height of this fact that the researcher considers it pertinent to examine the issue, and make necessary recommendations which will go a long way to highlight socio-economic factors and academic achievements of adolescent.