This study examined the Effects of Instructional Materials and Students’ Academic Performance in Physics in IkotEkpene Local Government Area, AkwaIbom State. Nigeria. To guide this study, four specific objectives, four research questions and four null hypotheses were formulated for this study. A sample of 120 students was selected from a total population of 4,935 S.S.2 Students in the 5 public secondary schools in IkotEkpene L.G.A using a simple random sampling technique in an ex-post facto research design. Instructional Materials Tools’ Questionnaire (IMTQ) and Physics Achievement Test (PAT) were used as instruments for this study and they were subjected to validity and reliability tests with reliability coefficients of 0.62,0.89,0.84 and 0.80 for use of models, pictures, hands-on research and audio-visuals for IMTQ respectively while 0.98 was the reliability coefficient for PAT using Cronbach’s alpha formula 21. T-test was used to analyze the collected data at 0.05 alpha level of significance. The result of the analysis revealed that there is a significant difference in the academic performance of S.S.2 students in Physics based on teachers’ use of three dimensional models, pictures, hands-on research and audio-visuals which led to the rejection of the four null (Ho) Hypotheses. From the findings of this study, it was concluded that teachers’ use of instructional materials such as three dimensional models, pictures, hands-on research and audio-visuals as instructional materials enhances higher academic performance. It was therefore recommended that adequate training on how to select and use appropriate instructional materials be carried out through seminars, workshops e.t.c while school management, government and other stakeholders in education provide these materials as well as encourage the students’ active participation for better understanding of the subject contents for effective teaching-learning experience.
Table of Contents
List of Tables
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Purpose of Study
1.4 Significance of Study
1.5 Research Questions
1.6 Research Hypotheses
1.7 Basic Assumptions of the Study
1.8 Delimitation of the Study
1.9 Limitation of the Study
1.10 Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Theoretical framework of the Study
2.1.1 The Gestalt Theory and Instructional Materials
2.1.2 Social Learning Theory
2.1.3 The Social Learning Theory and Instructional Materials
2.2 Concept of Instructional Materials
2.2.1 Availability of Instructional Materials
2.2.2 Selection of Instructional Materials
2.2.3. Utilization of Instructional Materials
2.3 The Concept of Students’ Academic Performance
2.4 Instructional Models and Students’ Performance
2.5 Instructional Pictures and Students’ Performance
2.6 Use of Hands-on-research and Students’ Performance
2.7 Audio-visuals and Students’ Performance
2.8 Summary of Related Literature
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODS
3.1 Area of Study
3.2 Design of the Study
3.2 Population of the Study
3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique
3.5.1 Instructional Material Tools’ Questionnaire (IMTQ)
5.2 “Physics Achievement Test” (PAT)
3.6 Validation of the Research Instruments
3.7 Reliability of the Research Instruments
3.8 Administration of the Research Instrument
3.9 Statistical Treatment of Data
CHAPER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1 Data Analysis and Result
4.1.1 Research Question 1 and Hypothesis 1
4.1.2 Research Question 2 and Hypothesis 2.
4.1.3 Research Question 3 and Hypothesis 3
4.1.4 Research Question 4 and Hypothesis 4.
4.2 Summary of Findings
4.3 Discussion of Findings
4.3.1 Use of three dimensional models and Students’ Academic Performance
4.3.2 Use of pictures and Students’ Academic Performance
4.3.3 Use of hands-on research and Students’ Academic Performance
4.3.4 Use of audio-visuals and Students’ Academic Performance
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.4 Suggestions for Further Research
LIST OF TABLE
Table 1: Summary of t-test Analysis of the difference in
students’ academic performance in Physics
based on the use of three dimensional
models as instructional material (N=120).
Table 2: Summary of t-test Analysis of the difference in students’ academic performance in Physics based on the use of pictures as instructional material (N=120)
Table 3: Summary of t-test analysis of the difference in students’ academic performance in Physics based on the use of hands-on research as instructional material (N=120)
Table 4: Summary of results of t-test analysis of the difference in students’ academic performance in Physics based on the use audio-visuals as instructional material (N=120)
TABLE 1: S.S.2 Students Population Distribution in the five (5) Public Secondary Schools in IkotEkpene L.G.A
Table II: Sample and Sampling frame of S.S.2 Students in Public Secondary Schools in IkotEkpene L.G.A.
Table III. Cronbach’s alpha formula 21 Reliability Estimate of Teachers’
Instructional Material Domains (N=25)
Table IV: Cronbach’s alpha formula 21 Reliability Estimate of Teachers’ Instructional Materials Domains (N=25)
1.1 Background of the Study
One of the specific goals of secondary education is to inspire students with the desire to achieve excellence as well as improve self (Federal Ministry of Education 2004). For students to be inspired, teachers require some measures of creative processes that can elicit or induce students’ active participation through the mode of teaching, resource materials used and other teaching and learning factors. It is therefore imperative for teachers to use instructional materials that appeal to the sensory stimuli of learners. Eddie, (2001) maintained that there has been a lot of concern about the performance of students in various school subjects over the past years. Several reasons have been given to be responsible for this but the instructional processes prevalent in the last decades may account for their shortcomings. This is because the teaching-learning processes involve the use of instructional materials to enhance effective learning. Researchers have proven that effective learning results from effective teaching. If learning does not take place, then teaching is a failure (Nkang, 2003). To curb this, the use of instructional materials other than textbooks and verbal presentations has gained grounds in the educational practice and has been strictly guided by the content of the curriculum and teacher’s teaching technique or method.
Instructional materials on the other hand are as old as human beings. During the primitive age, shells, seeds, sticks, cowries, stones etc formed counters while the rock surface formed the board; sharp edged pebbles, stones and sticks were used as pens. Even roots of plants, herbs, leaves and fruits provided some indelible liquid used as ink for teaching-learning processes. Biblically, The Ten Commandments given to Moses by God were written on rock surface for the Israelites to study. Instructional materials can therefore be defined as resources or teaching materials which the teacher utilizes in the course of presenting a lesson in order to make the content of the lesson understandable to the learner. They represent all the alternative channels of communication, which can be used to compress and present information in a more vivid form to learners (Onyejemezi, 2004).
The use of instructional materials in teaching and learning according to Yusey, (2005) assists in performing such role as:
- Offering a reality of experience, which stimulates self-activity on the part of the students;
- Supplying concrete basis for conceptual thinking;
- Providing experiences not easily secured by other materials thereby contributing to the efficiency, depth and variety of learning;
- Developing continuity of thought; and
- Supply of necessary basis for developmental learning hence making learning more permanent.
Etim (2006) supported that students understand and learn faster if concepts and ideas are presented in forms familiar to them. The teacher therefore needs to seek better and more life-like realistic, functional and significant problem-solving activities for the learners to sustain their arousal, zeal and interest. Theses problem-solving activities will equally help the teacher to cope with students’ learning disabilities. Instructional materials will make a tremendous enhancement of lesson impact if intelligently used (Maduabum, 2001). Although every subject requires specific resources for quality academic performance among students, physics appears to be one subject that could not be taught effectively without the use of specialized instructional materials. The instructional materials in this case can be the use of picture charts, three dimensional models, hands-on-research and audio-visual materials.
Physics is a core science subject which deals with quantities, their units of measurements, instruments of measurements and calculations. It enables us to understand our environment very well, it’s due to the study of physics that we know about the eclipse which occurs in the universe and many other things. It is a pre-requisite for some courses like medicine, Engineering and environmental sciences etc. It helps us to solve some problems like eye defects and many others. It is through physics that we study about eye defects and the lens with which to correct such defect. This is to say that the study of physics helps to solve our sight problems.Passive learning through lectures and textbooks reading may not provide a lasting understanding or interest in this subject of study. For secondary school students learning physics instructional materials could help them connect to the object of study, and students’ participation may increase (Ugwu, 2005).
Poor performance in science subjects where students obtain low or fail grades (D7, E8 and F9) and its’ effect on the economy of the country has been the major concern of science educators, educationists and other institutions directly connected with the educational sector over the years. This has led to the setting up of committees severally by the West African Examinations’ Council (WAEC), Science Teachers Association of Nigeria (STAN), Federal Ministry of Education and other different non-governmental bodies like UNESCO, Petroleum Trust Fund (PTF) among others to curb this menace. Researchers have indicated that the poor performances observed is as a result of student’s lack of understanding in different subjects and difficult concepts such as physiology, medicine, physiotherapy, engineeringetc in physics due to the teachers’ ineffective teaching process (WAEC Report 1992, 1993, 1996 and 2001).
This has become a problem that needs to be tackled because if it persists, more students will shy away from Physics as a course of study. This will reduce our society to a people devoid of useful and witty inventions aimed at solving socials problems. It is therefore based on this that the relevance of using instructional materials in teaching-learning processes to enhance students’ academic excellence inspired the researcher to conduct this study to find out how instructional materials can affect the students’ academic performance in Physics in senior secondary schools in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.