1.1 Background of the Study
Science can be defined as the knowledge obtained by observation and testing of facts. It can also be referred to as the knowledge about the structure and behavior of the natural and physical world based on facts that can be prove such using as an experiment. It can also be defined as the systematic process of making enquiry about the living and non-living things in our environment.
Lederman (2010) opined that ‘‘ there is nothing more important to the future of the nation than a population that is more science ‘savvy’ than we are now’’. From global climate change to genetic manipulation to the neurosciences’ progress on the working of human minds, there are issues which have political, social and economic consequences of vast implications. Education has been considered to be the cornerstone for development.
According to Federal Republic of Nigeria (2010). Education forms the basis for literacy, skills acquisition ability, teaching achievement and ability to harness human and material resources towards the achievement of societal goals. In Nigeria today there is high demand for education because it is necessary for all. Education is very vital, deprived of education non can lead a good life.
Teaching is essentially built on the broad concept of impacting knowledge on learners. Teaching can be viewed as an attempt to help the learner or someone to acquire skills, attitude and also knowledge. Recent developments in brain science has underlined the significance of learning from experience from the time in the womb on (Lieberman 2013). Bringing people’s experiences around the subjects or areas we are looking to teach about into the classroom or learning situation is, thus, fundamental to the learning process. Teaching involves creating an environment and engaging with others, so that they learn particular things. This can be anything from tying a shoe lace to appreciating the structure of a three act play. I want highlight three key elements here – focus, knowledge and the ability to engage people in learning. Learning on the other hand can be said to be a change in behaviour which is more or less permanent in nature due to experience exposure of knowledge gained and required by the active participation of the child or the learner, it is also known as acquisition of hobbies, knowledge and attitude involving new ways of doing things.
According to Abolade (2009), the advantage of instructional materials are that they are cheaper to produce, useful in teaching large number of students at a time, encouraging learners to pay proper attention and enhance their interest. An ideal teaching-learning environment should be comfortable, noiseless, decorated and enriched with careful visual and audio visual teaching aids. Teaching and learning are the important element in education. The teacher uses different approaches and substantial to teach the students and to ensure that they are actively involved in the learning. With the passage of time, altered methods and techniques are entered in the field of education and teachers use different kind of aids to make learning effective. Teaching aids arouse the interest of learners and help the teachers to explain the concepts easily. Teaching aids are those instructional aids which are used in the classroom to encourage students learning process. According to Agu (2011) holds a similar view about teaching aid as any arrangement, object, material, real or improvised brought into learning to enhance the understanding of the learner other than the normal expression of the teacher in teaching and learning.
Aramide and Bolarinwe (2010) opine that instructional materials have the potential for enhancing students learning. Teaching aids are tools that help to make an issue or lesson clearer or easier to understand and know (pictures, models, charts, maps, videos, slides, real objects etc.). There are many Teaching aids available these days. We may classify these aids as follows; visual aids are which use sense of vision are called Visual aids. For example: – models, actual objects, charts, pictures, maps, flannel board, flash cards, bulletin board, chalkboard, slides, overhead projector etc. Out of all of these, black board and chalk are the commonest ones. The challenges of classroom instruction increase due to lack of adequate materials to aid in the lesson delivery. Most significantly, it has convert a common phenomenon to integrate textbooks with audio visual aids as additional or supplementary resource for classroom course learning activities. Teaching aids are important in the educational system. Teaching aids are those devices which are used in classrooms to encourage students learning process and make it easier and interesting. Teaching aids are the best tool for making teaching effective and the best tool for dissemination of knowledge. Research findings Cuban (2009) indicated the psychology of teaching aids as under 1% of what is learned is from the sense of taste, 1.5% of what is learned is from the sense of touch, 3.5% of what is learned is from the logic of smell, 11% of what is learned is from the logic of hearing and 83% of what is learned is from the sense of sight. Also people generally remember, 10% of what they read, 20% of what they hear, 30% of what they see, 50% of what they hear and see, 70% of what they say and 90% of what they say as they do.
Teaching aids are the devices that helps the teacher to clarify, establish, correlate and co-ordinate precise conceptions, understandings, appreciations and support him/her to make learning more actual, active, motivating, encouraging, significant and glowing. Proper use of visual aids helps to retain more concepts permanently. Students can study well when they are inspired properly through different Teaching aids. Teaching aids creates the accurate image which the students see and hear properly. Teaching aids provide complete example for conceptual thinking. Teaching aids create the environment of interest for the students. Teaching aids helps to increase the vocabulary of the students. Teaching aids helps the teacher to get sometime and make learning permanent. Teaching aids provide direct experience to the students. “Teaching aids” is identical in meaning to instructional material” in order word, the two terms can be used interchangeably for the purpose of this topic, teaching aids may include, excursion or field trips, dramatization, demonstration, display modes and exhibits film TV programmes.
When teaching aid is being used, it aids to root participation of students in the lesson because when students look at visual model or aid, it is measured as a kind of contribution. Teaching aids can be very useful in making a topic interesting and the amalgamation of both visual and audio stimuli is particularly effective since the two most important senses are involved. Integrating technology into the classroom begins when a teacher prepares lessons that use technology in meaningful and relevant ways. Technological aids were found to be supportive rather than dominating. Ranasinghe and Leisher (2009) said that technology should assist the teacher in creating a collaborative learning environment. The integration of technology into curriculum greatly helps in easier understanding of the concepts for the students.
Furthermore, the use of visual aids encourage the body movement and it may strengthen the control. Visual aids in teaching are one mode to enhance lesson plans and give students additional ways to process subject information. Visual aids present unit of knowledge through auditory of visual stimuli, both with a view to aid learning. They make the information gaining easier and help in making learning practice appealing. They reduce the work of the teacher and help in gaining interest in studying of the text books. Audio visual materials consists of electronic videos, audiotapes, slides, filmstrips, radio and television (Onyilagba & Nnajiofor 2016) University classrooms were equipped with world class technological teaching aids for making classroom students learning process interesting and resourceful. However, the use of identical resources, comprising a syllabus, is suggested. Sequencing also can be improved purely using overlays on slides, doffing methods on charts and or chalk, and marker boards. Sequencing can be emphasized and prepared clearer by the use of distinct colors.