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For the purpose of fiscal accountability, there is first of all the auditor general whose position, powers, security of tenure; impartiality and independence are guaranteed by the constitution. It is his duty, through to regular auditing of accounts, to ensure that government department/parastatal and other public establishments spend funds appropriated for them in a proper manner, for the purpose for which the funds were appropriated and in accordance with government rules and regulations. He can surcharge offenders, refers cases of fraud and misappropriation to the policy and by yearly reports, left the legislature know how the funds that it had previously were appropriated and used. Nigeria for the federal and state governments, are bodies known as the public accounts committees of which the auditor general duty is to scrutinize the accounts and establishment to question or examine those responsible and report to the legislature which appointed them. There is the legislature itself which are the sole sources of money supply for public, must scrutinize all elements of funds to carryout public service. The budget sessions afford every sector effective: 1. Are the internal control measure adequate to ensure public accountability 2. What are impact of public accountability in Kaduna polytechnic 3. What problems likely to be encountered as regards to effectiveness and economy


More often than not, public state and reactions addressed to how government resources are managed accounted for in the public sector organization have left much to be desired such statements and reactions have unfolded many impressions. Bill before examining these impressions let us look at what Dr. Bamye Akipa of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria put together as public statement in the New Nigeria of Tuesday 25th June 1991. Occasionally one runs into statements either in the mass media or conversation in respect of public resources such as follows: 1. For all the taxes we are forced to what value we are getting for the money 2. Government should not have approved the location of that project there, it is nothing but a white elephant project 3. That contract price was unduly inflated 4. How could that equipment cost that much 5. It is government property and therefore feels free to use it anyhow you can 6. Why are you bothered about this work, don’t you know it is government work?

This researcher was privileged to have personal experience of the situations at Kaduna polytechnic and think the situation there like a typical public organization would attract the same verdict as had been collated together by Dr. B. Akpa. The major emphasis of the reformed civil service of 1988 was an attainment of efficient and expedition administration, reduction in expenditure and improvement of economy to the fullest extent consistent with efficiency in the implementation of policies and programmes to the fullest extent practicable. The emphasis on economy efficiency and effectiveness in executing government programmes has constrained every government organization to set into motion internal system to enhance the desired result. This in effect brought to bear on the internal audit units of Kaduna polytechnic the responsibility of proper internal auditing which will in turn advance effective internal control system to conform to the new government policy. All these developments call for dynamic processes of investigation and verification of activities to enable management monitor control and measure the rate of its performance output, bearing in mind the cost in terms of resources inputs. The act of investigation, verification and reporting are all audit functions.

The problem now is to determine which audit approach will be most effective in assisting management to have a better grip of internal control and accountability so as to effect the desired economy. Efficiency and effectiveness for result oriented performance. Experience has shown that hitherto financial audit carried out in Kaduna Polytechnic, emphasis less on economy efficiency and concern has often been to accuracy and conformity with regulations. This is another approach will ensure the measure of economy, efficiency and effectiveness audit (the three Es audit is advocated here.) The problem of this research now therefore, remains to establish if the new audit approach being advocated will enhance better internal control and accountability than the hitherto financial audit. The main problem is therefore stated thus: Is economy, efficiency and effectiveness audit a better effective management tool for internal control accountability financial audit? The problem is further broken down into small specific problem as follows: 1. Can the three ES audit enhance the desired system of internal control better than financial audit 2. Can the three Es audit enhance effective accountability than financial audits? 3. Can the three Es audit enhance more comprehensive stewardship reporting than financial audit?


The aims and the purpose of this work includes; the responsibility of designing accounting system in public parastatals and other related organizations with the need of marking right design and having the right caliber of officers to implement the system in order to achieve the desired results. 2. To evaluate the accounting system of the ministry of finance in Kaduna State in relation to its scope of activities 3. To evaluate the level of accountability in the public parastal and other similar organization


That public sector accounting does not leads to accountability in Public sector. Hi: That public sector accounting does leads to accountability in Public sector.

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