THE INCIDENCE OF HIV IN BLOOD DONORS AT BISHOP SHANAHAN HOSPITAL IN NSUKKA ENUGU STATE
This study of the incidence of HIV in blood donors was carried out at Bishop Shanahan Hospital Nsukka of Enugu state, Nigeria. Blood samples from two hundred donors were collected examined and analyzed for HIV positive result showed that 12% of the total number of donors were seropositive. Comprising of male and female donors. When tested statistically using chi-square distribution, the result showed that there is no significance difference in the incidence of HIV between the male and female donors in Nsukka Local Government Area. A good number of recommendations have been made for the purpose of future improvement of the ignorant recipients.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is an enveloped lentivirus with cylindrical core inside it’s capsid which posses reverse transcriptase. Infection of this virus to human body causes AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). The HIV/AIDs epidemic has devastated individuals and families affected by the virus. The virus is spread through blood, semen, vaginal secretion and breast mills of infected patients. Other modes of transmission are unprotected sexual intercourse with HIV positive partner, transfusion of HIV infected blood, use of unsterilized needle and syringe, razor or any other skin piercing objective used by HIV infected person (Peter et al , 2002).
Human immunodeficiency virus is extremely fragile and cannot survive outside the body’s fluids therefore, HIV is not transmitted by causal physical contact such kissing, holding hands, sneezing or coughing, sharing toilets, using the same eating utensils among other. Also HIV cannot spread by mosquitoes and can not destroyed by bleach, strong detergents and hot water (Maura, 2010).
There are two types of HIV, HIV-1 and HIV – 2. HIV 1 is the type of that accounts for the majority of infections in the world and has at least ten genetic sub-types while HIV -2 is found primarily in west Africa and U.S. The types of less easily transmitted and progress more slowly to disease than type 1.
The infected person may feel healthy but he or she can infect other the virus during the window stage. Window stage is the stage in which HIV positive is carrying the virus in the body bit the antibodies to HIV has not appeared when screening (Maura, 2010).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
There have been cases of the presence of the HIV/AIDs in blood donated for use on patients in many hospitals of Nigeria. This has led to the creation of fears in a good number of patients when the case arises that blood has to be transfused. The fear alone is another dimension of illness that leads to serious consequences. This condition also has contributed to high spread of new HIV infections to people and is especially more with people in low-income countries that have inadequate health care service. Also HIV infected blood transfused to patients have devastated many individuals and families since AIDs is incurable (Watson, 1992).
Finally, presence of HIV in blood donated for use has resulted in gotten a now born baby of HIV positive which have increased the morbidity and mortality among children in many countries (Peter, et al, 2002).
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The general objective of this study is to determine the incidence of HIV in blood donors at Shanahan Hospital Nsukka in Enugu state. Other specific objectives are:
- To test for the presence of HIV antibody in donors serum or plasma.
- To determine the possible way of transmitting HIV/AIDs.
- To detect whether the incidence of HIV in blood donors is more in males than in females.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study which have bothered much on screening of human plasma or serum is not significant importance to all personal involved in these project work. It also serves as a useful supplement to all laboratory scientists that shall be adopted in any sphere for the control of the incidence of HIV/AIDs in blood donors.
1.5 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The major problem of this work is the high cost of the latex reagent used for screening. Also financial problem have contributed in limiting my case study area to Nsukka zone rather than Enugu state.
Null Hypothesis (Ho)
Ho: There is no significant difference in the incidence of HIV between male and female blood donors in Nsukka Local Government Area.
Hi: There is significant difference in the incidence of HIV between male and female blood donors in Nsukka Local Government Area.
1.7 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
ARC – Aids related complex
ARV – Antiretroviral
AIDS – Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
HIV – Human immunodeficiency virus
HAART – Highly active antiretroviral therapy.
CDt4 or T4 cell – Subset of T lymphocyte which help to initiative immune system.
STI – Sexual transmitted infection
PCP – Pneumocustic carinii pneumonia
TB – tuberculosis
IL- 2 – stimulates CDt4 production
GP41 – Glycoprotein with weight of 41.
KS – Kaposi sarcoma (Tumor)
Lumphadenopathy – Enlargement of lumph mode
Pathophysiology – The Replication process of HIV in the body