1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Learning involves the acquisition of new knowledge, ideas, skills, values and experiences which enable the individual to modify and or alter his actions (NTI Manual, 2016). Learning is a gradual process and presenting any learning concept to learners must be done to appeal to pupils of varied interests and abilities -moving from the known to the unknown and encouraging active class participation. The teacher cannot be said to have achieved his instructional objectives until there is the desired change in the pupils’ behaviour. The teacher is therefore expected to use instructional materials to make the learner learn profitably. Abdu-Raheem (2016) defines instructional materials as essential and significant tools needed for teaching and learning of school subjects to promote teachers efficiency and improve pupils’ performance. Isola (2010) defines instructional materials as objects or devices that assist teachers to present their lessons logically and sequentially to the learners. This means that they serve as a guide to the teaching and learning processes through the logical and sequential preparation and presentation of lessons. Instructional materials can be collectively said to be all the things that are used to support, facilitate, influence or encourage acquisition of knowledge, competency and skill (Abiodun-Oyebanji and Adu 2007).
Instructional materials therefore are those things that a teacher or the learner uses in the course of teaching/learning to make learning simple, easy to understand, aid retention and recall whenever it is necessary. Instructional materials can be divided into three major categories based on their sensory appeal, namely; audio, visual and audio-visual. Audio instructional materials are those that appeal to the auditory sense such as radio, audio tapes. Visual instructional materials appeal to the sense of sight and they come in the form of pictures, prints, real objects (models), CDs to mention but a few. Audio-visuals appeal to both the auditory and visual senses of the learner and stimulate interest to learn. Such materials take the form of films, television, audio-visual tapes, CDs, VCDs, DVDs and other high definition electronic devices. ICT has delivered several packages that can aid teaching and learning to achieve desirable learning objectives. These packages are found in mobile devices like smart phones, personal computers, internet facilities and the likes. ICTs provide a lot of learning experiences to learners with varied interest and capabilities. Pictorial illustrations are valuable assets. Projected visuals are able to convey information and specific experiences that are needed for the development of workable concepts. Films can modify motivations, interest, attitude and opinions. Relia (real objects) or three-dimensional models can be effective in teaching/learning as the learner learns a great deal by examining and manipulating a model. Onuekwusi (2005) accounts of what audio-visual materials can do are as follow: they heighten motivation for learning because of their concreteness; foster continuity of thought when words are coupled with explanations in pictures and sounds; provide freshness and variety; appeal to pupils of varied interests and abilities. Others include: encourage active participation, give need reinforcement, widen the range of pupils’ experience, assure order and continuity of thought and improve the effectiveness of other materials. Effective teaching and learning therefore requires a teacher to teach the pupils with instructional materials and use practical activities to make learning more vivid, logical realistic and pragmatic (Akinleye, 2010).
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The transmission of facts, ideas and information from the teacher to the pupils in a systematic order or procedure is referred to as teaching. During this process instructional material otherwise known as teaching aids meant to make instruction more meaningful, clear and much more interesting to pupils are brought in display. For quite some times now, the teaching of pupils has suffered in the hands of un-resourceful and un-motivated teachers, especially at the primary school level. Many teachers at this level feel that primary school lesson does not necessarily need to be accompanied by the uses of instructional materials. There has been general outcry of poor performance of learners in primary school in the state. This poor performance stems from the mare fact that there are inadequate instructional materials or resources that will facilitate the teaching of the basic concept of differs subjects in the primary schools. Jiya, (1998), and Kojo (2016) have noted the above mentioned. The primary school learning therefore appear very abstract and for the learners as they used their sense only. It has been observed the primary school teachers find a very herculean task to accompany their lesson with relevant instructional materials such as audio aids, visual aids, visual and audio-visual aids. This is perhaps due to lack of textbooks or resourcefulness or lack of innovativeness or gross incompetents of the teachers. Whichever is the case, this lack of instructional materials constitutes a great deal of problem for effective teaching and learning of the subjects in primary schools.