THE INFLUENCE OF NIGERIAN VIDEO FILMS ON SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN UYO URBAN
TABLE OF CONTENT
Certification – – – – – – – – i
Dedication – – – – – – – – ii
Acknowledgment – – – – – – – iii
Abstract – – – – – – – – – iv
Table of contents – – – – – – – v
CHAPTER ONE: THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING
1.1 Introduction – – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the problem – – – – – 4
1.3 Objectives of the study – – – – – – 6
1.4 Research questions – – – – – – 7
1.5 Significance of the study – – – – – 8
1.6 Scope of the study – – – – – – 8
1.7 Limitation of the study – – – – – 9
1.8 Definition of operational terms – – – – 10
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction – – – – – – – 11
2.2 Film and national Development – – – – 12
2.3 Children and Audio-Visual Media – – – 19
2.4 Children and Media violence – – – – 24
2.5 Effect of Media Violence on Children – – – 27
2.6 The Mass Media influence on Children – – 29
2.7 Influence of exposure to films on youths – – 31
2.8 Media Influence on youths Sexual Behaviour – – 34
2.9 Theoretical framework – – – – – 37
2.9.1 The Cultural Norms Theory (Melvin Deflur, 1970) – 37
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODS
3.1 Introduction – – – – – – – 38
3.2 Research Design – – – – – – 39
3.3 Population of the study – – – – – 39
3.4 Sample size and technique – – – – – 40
3.5 Description of instrument – – – – 40
3.6 Validation of Instrument – – – – – 42
3.7 Data Analysis techniques and presentation – – 43
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1 Introduction – – – – – – – 44
4.2 Presentation and Analysis of Data – – – 44
4.3 Discussion of findings – – – – – 58
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary – – – – – – – – 70
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – 71
5.3 Recommendations – – – – – – 72
THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING
Film is a term that encompasses individual motion pictures, the field of film as an art form and the motion picture industry. Films are produced by recording images with cameras, or by creating images using animation or special effects.
Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures which reflect those cultures and in turn affect them. Film is considered to be an important art form, as source of popular entertainment and a powerful method for educating or indoctrinating citizens.
The visual elements of cinema give motion pictures a universal power of communication. Traditional films are made up of series of individual images called frames. When these images are shown rapidly in succession, a viewer has the illusion that motion is occurring. The viewer cannot see the flickering between the frames due to an effect known as persistence of vision (i.e. a situation where by the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after the source has been removed). Viewers perceive motion due to a psychological effect called beta movement.
The origin of the name “film” comes from the fact that photographic film (also called film stock) has historically been the primary medium for recording and displaying motion pictures.
In Nigeria, the cinema is a developing industry that has become increasingly productive in recent years. Although Nigerian films have been produced since 1960s, the rise of digital cinema has resulted in a growing video film industry.
The Nigerian video feature film industry is sometimes known as Nollywood in the areas of presentation, Nigerian early films had presented common occurrences prevalent in Nigeria and topical at that time, for instance in “Kongi’s Harvest”, the first Nigerian film which was a satirical commentary on the Nigeria’s first Republic, the intrigue of power and politics in a newly independent state was vividly portrayed.
Unlike recent productions, early African films presented true life situations and environment. It did not employ the special effects since there were no computers to aid the technology. The early films were landmark production because of the language used and the novelty of the medium. Thus, they were considered best in the history of films in Nigeria and African in General.
Since films combine sight and sound, it makes double impact in affecting the psychology of one who is involve in the sensory process of watching the film (Adesanga, 1999). This impact could be either positive or negative the task before the movie industry is affecting the society through its audience, is one that needs appraisal due to its delicate nature, so what is presented and how it is presented are very necessary for the sake of audience and societal development.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
It could be wrong to say that the Nigerian home movie industry is running smoothly without any problem. The industry is faced with problems despite its prospect. Indiscriminate film production may not necessarily be a problem to the industry, rather a competition between the private films makers.
The Nigerian film industry came into existence as revolt against colonialism, since films is believed to be the most potent weapon by which one identifies a nation. Its images, culture, aspiration and achievement. The early Nigerian film-makers tried to impress these ideals on the minds of their audience through their films. The ability of the film to combine sight and sound (seeing and hearing) is to create psychological identification with the audience and the screen is one of its powerful attributes.
The establishment of film industry in Nigeria was to serve as a tool for moral and cultural instruction and projection in the hands of those who are anxious to improve their country. One may not be totally wrong to say that the Nigerian film industry in the process of projecting this rich cultural heritage has also helped to upset the psychology of the audience especially the children audience.
Productions are not only rushed to meet up with the competition, but there is also the problem of lack of qualitative script writing in any of the films they produce.
The above bits sum up to a big problem of discriminate presentation of films packed with charms, magic and fetish items. In about every ten to twelve films released in Nigeria, about eight present these and they are either used for killing, getting rich or for protection. Since films are meant to portray the culture and tradition of people, this implies that every average Nigerian is a potential charmer, witch doctor or cultist.
The increase in the number of cults in higher institutions, even permeating the secondary school level is alarming. Violence has been the order of the day in Nigerian citadels of learning. Most worrisome is the proliferation of this anti-social behaviour like cultism, prostitution, crime etc. among secondary school students. There is a popular aphorism which posits that there is no smoke without fire.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of carrying out this study were to:
- determine how Nigerian home video film influence secondary school students in Uyo urban.
- find out the relationship between viewing of home video films by the secondary school students and their involvement in anti-social behaviour.
- find out if home video films can help in curbing social ills in our society.
- find out whether the home video films have positive values for the youths, especially secondary school students.
1.4 Research Questions
This study attempted to answer the following questions.
- How do Nigerian home video films influence secondary school students in Uyo urban?
- Is there any relationship between viewing of home video films by secondary school students and their involvement in anti-social behaviour?
- Do video films help in curbing social ills in the society?
- Do videos films produced in Nigerian have positive values for the children and youth especially secondary school students?
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study dwells more on the importance of qualitative film production and the influence of immoral ones on the child audience. this study will be an indispensable contribution to knowledge by making positive inputs in developing literature on films productions and presentation. Apart from being an indispensable contribution to knowledge, it is important because it will expose the problem some films pose to their audiences.
It also present or suggest possible ways to the film industry in its future production of films that will aid social development and good moral upbringing for its child audience.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study centers on Nigerian home video or movie industry as well as its effect or influence on children. This study will not only observe the trends in the different films produced in Nigeria, but will further give a critical appraisal of the Nigerian film industry, its concept, its production and general presentation.
This study also appraises studies on the influence of films on children in other countries.
The numbers of schools utilized in this study are two secondary school in Uyo urban which are secondary school Etoi and four town secondary school.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
This work is limited to the Nigerian film industry with particular reference to the children audience (students). Lack of finance and transportation problems acted as a barrier in the course of carrying out the research.
The un-cooperative attitude of some students to the questionnaire given to them acted as a constituent to the researcher. The teachers and principals of these schools constituted a minor problem (time wastage) in terms of delaying the researcher in the cause of issuing out questionnaire to the students due to fact that they wanted to ascertain the authenticity of my identify as Uyo City Polytechnic students and the purpose of the research.
1.8 Definitions of Terms
- Children: The term children refer to the offspring that are distinct from the adult and must be protected in the family and society in general.
Psychology: This refers to a study of human behaviour,