BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The rapid increase in crime rate in Nigeria has become a thorn in the flesh and the talk of the day. There is no day that pass in the country that we do not here of one crime or the other been committed by different set of people in the country, this is alarming. In Nigerian the most common issue we are facing is the terrorists’ attacks in tangible parts of the Northern region, Achumba 2013. For this reason, national crime threat has become a key issue for the Nigerian government and has moved huge allocation of the national budget to crime. The high rate of violent crimes like terrorism, kidnapping, armed robbery and banditry, suicide bombing, religious killing, ethnic clashes, politically-motivated killing and a host of other forms of criminal activities in the country is rapidly becominga conventional and naturalevent that characterized life in the nation. Gradually, Nigeria has ranked low in the Global Peace Index (GPI, 2012), which shows or defines a state that cannot be amended in terms of crime, insecurity, etc. In the same light, fellow researchers stressed that the issues of crime has taking a very powerful depthand coaxing the country’s political and economic managers and also the nation at large to a regretful situation, the loss of their loved ones, investment and absence of security in most facets of the state. Innocent bloods are being wasted as the day goes by and the show off of endured frustration by the citizens has remained a good reason to call for help.The terrorists attacks and killings is gradually becoming like it was during the Nigerian civil war. This big issue is gradually becoming out of hand and going beyond the strengths of the government of Nigerian state, while we Nigerians also see it as the government been incompetent and not able to produce positive result. Looking at the causes of this abnormality, Onifade opined that there is link between increasing ethnic hate, religious bigotry, political rivalry, and an increasing population of discontented citizens in the country who feet short-changed and having limited or no access to the common inheritance. This expresses the point that the primordial abilities of diversemanifestations of different ethnic militias and the pre-ponderant religious fundamentalism in places, given expression to by some areas of the dominant religious establishments in Nigeria have unavoidably increased or maximized the level and tendency various scholars pointed out same factors that are accountable for the sudden burst of crime in the country. They debated that the feedback of the Nigerian state to the crisis of the mass unemployment and fuel crisis has led to the worsening of the crime situation in Nigeria. Also, poverty, unemployment rejectedrevenue and low savings, which has subjected many retrenched people into an aggressive struggle for survival, high rate of inflation, political intolerance on the part of the ruling party as pointed out have contributed not in a small measure to the rate of crime in the country. Another major reason of government of any nation is the provision of anti-corruption agencies. The role is stressed in the 1999 constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria that “the crime and welfare of the people shall be the majorreason of existence of the government. In carrying out this duty, the government assigned the task of maintenance of internal crime to the Nigeria police. The Nigeria police are by law burdened with the role of hindering, stopping and detecting crime, preserving the peace of the nation and order and inflicting all laws and regulations. They are also looked on to perform these roles efficiently and productively. With the high rate of crime in the country today, a good number of the citizens are now of the opinion that the Nigeria police falls below their required standards of performance. They are seen as a toothless dog that can only bark but not bite. Researchers debated on the fact that there is no need to prove the non-performance of the Nigeria police in the present situation. Rather, the only thing that is needed is the identification of the major incompetence’s, challenges and constraints that are responsible for the situation. The Nigeria police are part and parcel of the civil society. For this reason, putting the challenges which have made their work incapable in resent times, they have human problems that not only encourage its material inadequacies, but are also of tremendous adverse import on its general performance from one day to the next. Poor funding for key growth of the force such as training, logistics, arms and ammunitions etc. and under-utilization of funds are tooth on the rim of gear of competent and productive police performance. Morality among the police is not a virtue. It was discussed that corruption and the crime of getting money from people among the police is a serious problem because they are expected to be moral and of good value as law enforcement agents. In the desire of officers to meet up with mate in the society they landed in slaughtering efficient and productive performance of duty on the edge of corruptions.
STATEMENT OF THE GENERAL PROBLEM
The inability of the Nigeria Police Force (NPF) to make sure crime rate is reduced, safety of life and property is assured and the continuous crime issues in the country is alarming. The sources of crime issues in the country are too numerous to mention and cannot be blamed on just one arm of the system. They change from the government to the police down to the people in the society. On the side of the police, there are numerous issues which stand as constraints responsible for its extremely poor performance. A good number of Nigerians have described the police as a crowd composed of lazy, incompetent, corrupt, uniformed men and women contributing to the perpetrating of crimes such as mass killing, intimidation, rape, extrajudicial killings/summary execution and other hateful and evil crimes against citizens they are paid to protect. The rapid and wide spread of violence in the northern part of Nigeria which was introduced by Boko Haram today is related with the police extra-judicial killing of the leader of the group. It is also common with the police to falsely label innocent people as armed robbers, while the real criminals are working freely in the society doing what they know to do best. They falsified post mortem result and to worsen the matter, people either criminals or none criminal disappear from there custody without good explanations and families of the innocent victims are faced with extortion. The Nigeria police Force (2008) in there annual report noted that the police is handicapped because of combination of factors that plagued them, among which are; lack of resources, poor government support, poor condition of service, lack of appropriate and adequate training and ill-equipped workforce. Coped with this are the issue of police extortion and corruption and other vices common among the police system which contributes to their lack of efficiency. Alemika (1999) posit that police corruption is a serious issue because they are expected to be moral as law-enforcement agents. If the police that were employed and taken care of with the people’s money to protect them and detect crimes for them are on their own corrupt and also a party to crimes, then the entire society is at the mercy and grace of the criminals. The above among numerous others contribute to the Police and the challenges of crime in the Nigerian state.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major aim of the study is to examine the Nigerian police and crime management in Nigeria. Other specific objectives of the study include;
- To examine the level of crime in Nigeria.
- To determine the impact of effective crime amagement on economic development.
- To determine the major challenges to effective crime management by the police.
- To assess the role of the government in crime management in Nigeria.
- To recommend better ways of effective crime management by the police in Nigeria.
- What is the level of crime in Nigeria?
- What is the impact of effective crime management on economic development?
- What are the major challenges to effective crime management by the police?
- What is the role of the government in crime management in Nigeria?
- What are the other ways of effective crime management by the police in Nigeria?
H0: The police as not been effective in the management of crime in Nigeria.
H1: The police have been effective in the management of crime in Nigeria.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study would be of immense importance to the general public and the Nigeria police as it would highlight the role of the police in crime management. The study would also be of benefit to students, researchers and scholars who are interested in developing further studies on the subject matter.
SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study is restricted to the police and the management of crime in Nigeria using mararaba in Karu LGA of Nassarawa state as a case study.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.