THE PRODUCTION AND SENSORY EXAMINATION OF BISCUIT USING WHEAT FLOUR, CASSAVA FLOUR (ABACHA FLOOR) & AFRICAN YAM BEAN FLOUR

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Urbanization is charging the food habits and preferences of the populace towards convenient foods, which influence their nutritional intake. Most of the snacks consumed are high in carbohydrate. The use of composite flour has been encouraged since it reduces the importation of wheat.

          Biscuits, which are usually produced from cereal flours (mainly wheat) are consumed extensively all over the world, including the developing counties, where protein and caloric malnutrition is prevalent particularly among women and children. The increasing phenomenon of urbanization coupled with the growing number of working mothers, have contributed greatly to the popularity and increased consumption of snack foods (Singh et al; 1989). However, this increasing importance of snack foods such as biscuit in today’s eating habits has not been fully exploited in the developing countries. This is probably as a result of the prohibitive cost of baked products (Tsen et al; 1973). Since this crops is not currently cultivated in the tropics, there is need to look inwards for local raw materials with optimum nutritive value and good processing characteristics, to substitute wheat in baked products.

          Cassava (Manihot esculenta L) is the staple food of the poorer section of the population of many tropical counties rich in carbohydrate and has minute quantities of protein, vitamins and minerals (Ihekoronye and Ngoddy, 1985) which can result in malnutrition in some areas where it is the main item of diet (Kay, 1987). Although supplementation is necessary, it is not the solution of the elimination of micro nutrient deficiency disorder but rather the simple and most sustainable approach is fortification of staple food with limiting micronutrient (Ihekoronye and Ngoddy, 1985). Therefore the nutritional value of cassava root and its products such as cassava flour can be improved through food composites and fortification with other protein-rich crops with a reasonable amount of fats, vitamins and minerals (Enwere, 1998). One of such crops is the African yam bean.

          The African yam bean known as Odudu, Azama or Okpodudu by the Igbo’s belongs to the family Febaceae, which was formally classified under the sub-family Papillionoides (Anon, 1979). As a legume, it has an excellent supply of B-vitamins (Apata & Ologhobo, 1990). African yam beam will result in a more nutritious diet / snacks.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The objective of this study is therefore, to produce biscuit from various blends of wheat flour, cassava flour and African yam bean flour and to determine the sensory properties of the biscuit. Meanwhile, the acceptability of biscuit baked from the flours with a view to increasing the level of the wheat flour, cassava flour and African yam bean composite flour for biscuit production as this will lead to higher utilization of cassava thereby reducing post harvest losses.

SCOPE / LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

It is anticipated that in carrying out a study of this nature, there are limitations involved in the study. The writer encouraged a lot of unforeseen problem due to limited time given, the writer was unable to gather enough and sufficient facts which are relevant to the study.

Secondly, there was financial problem. The writer was not able to buy some of the materials like Bakery pastry booklets, get in touch with Bakery industry managers, travel for some researches etc. the polytechnic library was not fully equipped of most relevant materials that would have assisted the writer.
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THE PRODUCTION AND SENSORY EXAMINATION OF BISCUIT USING WHEAT FLOUR, CASSAVA FLOUR (ABACHA FLOOR) & AFRICAN YAM BEAN FLOUR