THE RESULTS OF THE ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY TEST OF EXTRACTS OF PINUS CARIBAEA AND PENTACLETHRA MACROPHYLLA AGAINST THE AFLATOXIN PRODUCTION BY ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS

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ABSTRACT

The leaf extracts of Pinus caribaea and Pentaclethra macrophylla were tested for antifungal and antimycotoxigenic activity against the growth of aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus using agar dilution method. The results showed that two extracts reduced the growth of aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus. Aspergillus flavus was significantly inhibited by the treatment when compared to the control. Further studies should be carried out to know the phytochemicals that are responsible for this antifungal activities. 

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page                                                                                                                    i

Certification                                                                                                                ii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iii

Acknowledgment                                                                                                       iv

Abstract                                                                                                                      v

Table of Content                                                                                                         vi

List of Tables                                                                                                              viii

List of Plates                                                                                                               ix

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION                                                       

  1. Introduction                                                                                                    1
    1. Colonization of Mycotoxigenic Fungi on Rice Grains                                   3

1.3       Causes of Aflatoxin growth in stored rice                                                      5

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1       Causes of Aflatoxin Growth in Stored Rice                                                  7

2.2       Site of Infection of Mycotoxin                                                                       7

2.3       Aflatoxin Levels in Rice Grains                                                                     10

2.4       Management of Mycotoxigenic Fungi Using

Botanical Method                                                                                           11

2.5       Extraction of Aflatoxin B1 from Aspergillus Flavins

Strains Grown on Rice Grains                                                                        14       

2.6       Aflatoxin B1 Production by Aspergillins Flavus Isolates

on Rice Grain                                                                                                  15

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1       Collection of plant materials                                                                           17

3.2       Sources of Fungal Pathogen                                                                           17

3.3       Preparation of plant extracts                                                                           18

3.4       Antifungal activity test                                                                                   18

3.5       Antimycotoxin/mycotoxin activity test of

Aspergillus flavus                                                                                            19

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1       Fungal Strain                                                                                                   20

4.2       Antifungal Activity Test                                                                                 23

4.3       Antimycotoxin/Mycotoxin Activity Test                                                       23

4.4       Discussion                                                                                                       24

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

5.1       Summary                                                                                                         26

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                      27

            REFERENCES                                                                                              28

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1:           Antifungal activity of Pinus Caribaea and

Pentaclethra Macropylla extracts against

mycotoxigenic fungal strain (Aspergillus flavus)                                21

Table 2:           Antimycotoxin/mycotoxin activity of PinusCaribaeaand

Pentaclethra Macropylla extracts treatment on aflatoxin production

by Aspergillus flavus                                                                           22       

LIST OF PLATES

Plate 1:            Photomicrography of Aspergillus flavus × 400 showing

its conidia and spores.                                                             20

THE RESULTS OF THE ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY TEST OF EXTRACTS OF PINUS CARIBAEA AND PENTACLETHRA MACROPHYLLA AGAINST THE AFLATOXIN PRODUCTION BY ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS