THE ROLE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE SERVICES IN IBIONO IBOM LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, AKWA IBOM STATE

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THE ROLE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE SERVICES IN IBIONO IBOM LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, AKWA IBOM STATE

ABSTRACT

This study was undertaken to assess the role of Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area in the implementation of Primary Health Care Services.To ease the work, four objective and corresponding research questions were formulated. Related literatures were reviewed and backed by appropriate theoretical framework based on William Ouchi’s theory Z (quality circles). The descriptive survey design was adopted; then purposive and convenience sampling techniques were used to draw ten (10) health facilities and all sixty-nine (69) professional Health workers respectively for the study. Structured questionnaire was the main instrument for data collection. Findings revealed some PHC roles adequately implemented and others fairly undertaken by the council. Findings also showed that timely awareness was created in people on available PHC services via appropriate media. Challenges to PHC implementation were also identified. Hence, four strategies including controlling political instability, building more PHC facilities, increased budgetary allocation and recruitment of skilled staff were highlighted to enhance PHC implementation. Therefore, it was recommended among others that aggressive and intensive health Education campaigns be floated to enhance people’s awareness on primary health care services in the study area.                               

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER                     TITLE                                                       PAGE

Title Page                                                    i

Certification                                                         ii

Dedication                                                  iii

Acknowledgements                                     iv

                                         Abstract                                                   v

                                        Table of Contents                                               vi

CHAPTER ONE:         INTRODUCTION

  1. Background Of The Study                                                                1
    1. Statement of the Problem                                                                  3
    1.  Aims And Objectives Of The Study                                       4
    1.  Research Questions                                                                          4
    1.  Research Hypotheses                                                                       4

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Introduction                                                                                7

2.1 Literature Review                                 7

2.2 Empirical Review                                                                        8

2.2.1 The role of local government in primary health care services  10

2.2.2 Level of awareness on existence of primary health care facilities / services                                                                                       13

2.2.3 Challenges in the implementation of primary health care services  1

2.2.4 Strategies to enhance primary health care services                            18

2.3 Summary of Literature Review                                                    20                                 

CHAPTER THREE                MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.0 Introduction                                                                                22

3.1 Participants / Population                                                            22

3.2 Study Area                                                                                  22

3.3 Sampling Techniques                                                                           23

3.4 Data Collection Source                                                               23

3.5 Instrument                                                                                  23

3.6 Research Design                                                                          23

3.7 Research Procedure                                                                     24

3.8 Data Analysis Techniques                                                           24

CHAPTER FOUR                 RESULT ANALYSIS

4.0 Introduction                                                                                25

4.1 Tabular presentation and analyses of Result                                        25

4.2 Summary of Findings                                                                           30

CHAPTER FIVE  DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION           AND RECOMMENDATIONS

  • Introduction                                                                             31
    • Discussion of Findings                                                            31

5.2     Implication of the Study                                                                   34

5.3     Limitations of the Study                                                         34

5.4     Conclusion                                                                              34

5.5     Recommendations                                                                   35

5.6    Suggestionsfor Further Studies                                                36

References                                                                                         37

Appendix                                                                                          39

2.1.1 Scientific Classification                                                              3

2.2 Description                                                                             3

2.3 Ecology                                                                                                4

2.3.1 Habitat        4

2.3.2 Taxonomy   5

2.3.3 Phylogeny   5

2.3.4 Cuisines                                    4 Bioactive substances  6

2.4.1 Saponins     6

2.4.2 Flavonoids  6

2.4.3 Tannins       7

2.4.4 Alkaloids     9

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1 Collection and Identification of OysterMushroom  Materials11

3.2 Preparation of Wild Oyster Mushroom Materials   11

3.3 Preparation of Alcoholic Mushroom Extract 11

3.4 Phytochemical Screening                      12

3.4.1 Test for Alkaloid                                                             12

3.4.2 Test for Glycoside 12

3.4.3 Test for Saponins           12

3.4.4 Test for Tannins             13

3.4.5 Test for Reducing Compounds          13

3.4.6 Test for Flavonoids        13

3.4.7 Test for Polyphenol        13

3.4.8 Test for Phelobatanin               13

3.4.9 Test for HydroxymethylAntheraquin          13

3.4.10 Test for Anthraquinones        14

3.5 Quantitative Analysis

3.5.1 Determination of Saponin                                                        14

3.5.2 Determination of Alkaloid       14

3.5.3 Determination of Flavonoids   15

3.5.4 Determination of Sugar Content        15

3.5.5 Determination of Glycosides    16

3.5.6 Determination of Polyphenol Content        16

3.6 Estimation of Mineral Elements          

3.6.1 Preparation of Samples                                                  17

3.6.2 Zinc                                                                                18

3.6.3 Iron                                                                                19

3.7.0 Determination of Vitamins                                                     

3.7.1 Determination of Vitamins A                                                   19

3.7.2 Determination of Vitamin C                                                    19

3.7.3 Determination of Riboflavin                                                    21

3.7.4 Determination of Thiamine                                   22

3.7.5 Determination of Niacin                    22     

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT23

CHAPTER FIVE:

5.1 Discussion27

5.2 Summary                                                                                    28

5.3 Conclusion and Recommendation28

REFFERENCES

APPENDICES

LIST OF TABLE

Table          Title                                                           Page

  1.  Phytochemical screening of  wild oyster mushroom          23
  2. Proximate of wild oyster mushroom (g/100g dry weight)  24
  3.  Level of anti-nutrients in wild oyster mushroom                        24     
  4. Element composition of wild oyster mushroom (mg/100g dry weight) 25
  5. Determination of Vitamin in wild oyster mushroom                    25
  6. Quantitative estimation of wild oyster mushroom (mg%100g dry weight)26


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUTION

  1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The concept of Primary Health Care (PHC) was formulated by 134 Countries at a meeting in Alma Ata on 12th September 1978 to offset the idea of “Health for All by the year 2000’’; as initiated by Dr Halfdam Mahler a former Director-General of World Health Organization (WHO) in search for improved health globally. The conference was organized under the auspices of the world Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children fund (UNICEF)with the aim that PHC shall provide general health services of preventive, promotive, curative and rehabilitative nature to the population –as the entre point of the health care system. The Alma Ata Declaration stressed health as a fundamental human right and stated that health care must be accessible, affordable and socially relevant to meet the needs of the people.

The conference also identified PHC as the strategy for achieving health for all by the year 2000 with the following components: health education,nutrition and food supply, water and sanitation, immunization, maternal and child health including family planning, control of endemic diseases, treatment of common ailments and essential drug supply. However, countries were free to add to the list based on their individual experiences, and Nigeria added two more components namely – mental health and oral health. And the PHC strategy was based on five principles as follows: universal coverage, community participation, use of appropriate technology, intersectoral collaboration for health and focus on prevention.

Meanwhile, PHC forms an integral part of the Nigerian social and economic development; and is the first level contact of the individual and the community in the national health system. Thus, bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work and contributes the first element of a continuing health care process (Akinsola,1993).And in the 1999 constitution of the federal republic of Nigeria, health is on the concurrent legislative list; by implication the three tiers of government are vested with the responsibilities of promoting health.

THE ROLE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE SERVICES IN IBIONO IBOM LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, AKWA IBOM STATE

THE ROLE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE SERVICES IN IBIONO IBOM LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, AKWA IBOM STATE