THE USE OF LABORATORY FACILITIES AND SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL PHYSICS STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN WAEC EXAMINATION IN IBESIKPO ASUTAN LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE                                                                                    PAGE

Cover

Fly leaf

Title  Page –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        i        

Declaration –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        ii       

Certification         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iii

Dedication  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iv

Acknowledgement-        –        –        –        –        –        –        v

Table of Contents –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vii

List of Tables       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        xii

List of Appendices                  –        –        –        –        –        –        xiii

Abstract      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        xiv

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

  1. Background of the Study                  –        –        –        –        1
    1. Statement of the Problem        –        –        –        –        14
    1. Purpose of the Study     –        –        –        –        –        15
    1. Research Questions       –        –        –        –        –        15
    1. Research Hypotheses     –        –        –        –        –        16
    1. Significance of the Study         –        –        –        –        17
    1. Scope of the Study        –        –        –        –        –        –        19
    1. Operational Definition of Terms       –        –        –        19

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE     

2.1     Theoretical Framework  –        –        –        –        –        21

2.1.1  Constructivist Theory    –        –        –        –        –        21

2.1.2  Robert Gagne’s Theory of Learning (1985)         –        –        24

2.1.3  Jerome Brunner’s Theory of Discovery Learning (1960)        27

2.2     Conceptual Framework –        –        –        –        –        30

2.3     Science Laboratory        –        –        –        –        –        30

2.4     Laboratory Facilities      –        –        –        –        –        33

2.5     Academic Performance in Physics    –        –        –        35

2.6     The Use of Laboratory Facilities and

          Students’ Academic Performance     –        –        –        36

2.7     Gender and Academic Performance in Science     –        43

2.8     Empirical StudiesReview        –        –        –        –        47

2.9     Summary of Literature Reviewed     –        –        –        51

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD

3.1     Research Design   –        –        –        –        –        –        53

3.2     Area of the Study          –        –        –        –        –        –        53

3.3     Population of the Study          –        –        –        –        –        54

3.4     Sample and Sampling Technique      –        –        –        55

3.5     Instrumentation    –        –        –        –        –        –        55

3.6     Validation of the Instrument   –        –        –        –        57

3.7     Reliability of the Instrument    –        –        –        –        57

3.8     Scoring of the Instrument        –        –        –        –        57

3.9     Research Procedure       –        –        –        –        –        58

3.10   Method of Data Analysis        –        –        –        –        –        59

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1     Results –     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        60     

4.1.1 Research Question 1       –        –        –        –        –        60

4.1.2  Research hypothesis 1   –        –        –        –        –        61

4.1.3  Research Question 2      –        –        –        –        –        63

4.1.4  Research hypothesis 2   –        –        –        –        –        64

4.1.5  Research Question 3      –        –        –        –        –        65

4.1.6  Research hypothesis 3   –        –        –        –        –        66

4.2     Discussion of Findings  –        –        –        –        –        67

4.2.1  Physic Students Performance in WAEC Examination in

          Schools with Adequate Laboratory Facilities

and those in          Schools without Adequate

Laboratory Facilities      –        –        –        –        –        67

4.2.2  Gender and Academic Performance of physics

          students in schools with adequate laboratory facilities- 70

4.2.3  Gender and academic performance of physics

          students in schools without adequate

          laboratory facilities        –        –        –        –        –        71

4.3     Summary of Findings    –        –        –        –        –        72

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1     Summary    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        73

  •      Conclusion –        –        –        –        –        –        –        75

5.3     Implications of the Findings    –        –        –        –        76

5.4     Recommendations         –        –        –        –        –        –        77

5.5     Suggestion for Further Studies         –        –        –        –        78

References –        –        –        –        –        –        –        79

Appendices –        –        –        –        –        –        –        89

LIST OF TABLES

TITLE                                                                           PAGE

Table 1:      Difference in Mean and Standard Deviation

Scores ofStudents from schools with

adequate laboratory Facilities and those

in schools without adequate

laboratory facilities.       –        –        –        –        60

Table 2:      Significant difference in mean and standard

                   deviation indicating scores of students

                   from schools with adequate laboratory

                   facilities and those in schools without

adequate laboratory facilities. –        –        –        62

Table 3:      Difference in mean and standard deviation

                   scores of male and female physics students

                   from schoolswith adequate

                   laboratory facilities.       –        –        –        –        63

Table 4:      Significant difference in the WAEC

Achievement mean scores of male

and female physics students from schools

with adequate laboratory Facilities.  –        –        64

Table 5:      Difference in mean and standard deviation

                   scores of male and female physics students

                   from schools without adequate

                   laboratory facilities.       –        –        –        –        65

Table 6:      Significant difference in the WAEC

                   achievement mean scores of male

                   and female physics students from schools

                   without adequate laboratory facilities.       –        –        66              

LIST OF APPENDICES

TITLE                                                                                    PAGE

AppendixI:           Letter of Introduction    –        –        –        89

AppendixII:                   Inventory List      –        –        –        –        90

AppendixIII:        Availability and use of laboratory

                             Facility Check-list          –        –        –        –        114

AppendixIV:        WASSCE Result for 2017/2018

                             and 2018/2019 academic session      –        119

AppendixV:         Computation of WASSCE scores

                             of physics students from schools with adequate

                             laboratory facilities        –        –        –        168

AppendixVI:        Computation of WASSCE scores

                             of physics students from schools without

                             adequate laboratory facilities  –        –        169

AppendixVII:       Computation of Male WASSCE scores

                             of physics students from schools with adequate

                             laboratory facilities        –        –        –        171

AppendixVIII:      Computation of Female WASSCE scores

                             of physics students from schools with

                             adequate laboratory facilities  –        –        172

AppendixIX:        Computation of male WASSCE scores

                             Of physics students from schools without

                             adequate laboratory facilities  –        –        174

AppendixX:         Computation of Female WASSCE scores

                             Of physics students from schools without

                             adequate laboratory facilities  –        –        175

ABSTRACT

This research work focused on the use of laboratory facilities and senior Secondary school physics students’ performance in WAEC Examination in IbesikpoAsutan Local Government Area. Three research questions and three null hypotheses were raised to guide the study. The study adopted a survey research design precisely an ex-post facto. The population used for the study was 1059 while the sample size was 1046 of all the SS3 physics students that participated in the 2017/2018 and 2018/2019 WASSCE as well as all the thirteen (13) physics teachers in the seven (7) public senior secondary schools. A Purposive sampling technique was used. Two instruments were used for collecting data. They include, check-list called “Availability and used of laboratory facilities check-list” (AULFC) and WASSCE result of the 2017/2018 and 2018/2019 academic session. Pearson’s product moment correction coefficient was used to find the reliability of the check-list which was found to be 0.78. The data collected were analyzed using the mean and standard deviation while t-test was used in testing the hypotheses. The findings indicate a significant difference between the performance of physics students in WAEC achievement mean score from schools with adequate laboratory facilities. The result also showed that there was a significant difference between the performance of male and female physics students in WAEC achievement mean score from schools with adequate laboratory facilities. Finally, there was no significant difference between the performance of male and female physics students in WAEC achievement mean score from schools without adequate laboratory facilities. From the findings, it is therefore recommended that the schools authorities, stakeholders and government should ensure that laboratory facilities are adequately provided in schools and these facilities should be effectively used by the Science teacher. This will help to improve the performance of students in both external and internal examination.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

          This chapter focuses on the following sub-headings; background of the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, research question, research hypothesis, significant of study, delimitation of the study and the definition of terms.

  1. Background o f the Study

Education plays a vital role in every society. According to Ugwuanyi (2013), education is the process by which the society assists the young ones to learn and understand the heritage of the past, participate productively in the society and contribute meaningfully to the development of the society. Emeka (2010) citing Kneller (2000), considered education as a process by which any society through school, colleges, universities and other institutions deliberately transmit knowledge, values and skills from one person to another. Education forms the basis for literacy, skill acquisition, technological advancement and ability to harness human and material resources toward achievement of societal goal (FRN, 2014).

A good system of education in any country could be effective on two fronts: first, the quantitative level which is used to ensure access to education, distribution, allocation of resources and facilities to various segments of the society. And secondly, the qualitative level which ensures that the education produces the skill needed for rapid social and economic development.

The 21st century is characterized by advancement in education, science and technology. For Nigeria as a country to realize accelerated development in the 21st century, a good qualitative educational programme in science and technology must be provided in our school system (Ewansiha and Celestine, 2013). According to Onifade(2011), science is the tap root upon which the bulk of present day technological breakthrough is built. Itis the bedrock of all technological advancement. Science is an organized body of knowledge in form of concepts, laws, theories and generalization. Urevbu (2011), defined science as a study of nature and natural phenomena in order to discover their principles and law. For Ogunleye (2010), science is seen as a dynamic human activity concerned with understanding the working of our world. Owolabi (2018), viewed science as an integral part of human society with its impacts felt in every aspect of human life, so much that it is intricately linked with a nation development.

The emphasis on teaching and learning of science is on ensuring that teachers not only teach the process of science but also are able to subject scientific concept to the sensory experience of the learners. By this, the ‘hands’ and ‘minds’ of learners must be on scientific activities such that learners will be able to learn actively and thereby participate in knowledge construction (Ausubel, 1963). In essence, the focus is on activity- based science lesson which entails the laboratory practices. The direction of teaching and learning of science subject in school is viewed to lead students to acquiring the required science process skills, life skill and competence as enshrined in the revised edition of (National policy on Education (NPE) FRN 2014). However, the efforts of teaching in achieving the goals of NPE (2014), the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), EFA, Science Education for all; Needs and vision 20:2020, faces great challenges. The challenges facing science teaching and learning includes the use of teacher-centered approaches in teaching, insufficient classrooms and lack of laboratory equipment. The availability of laboratory equipment, facilities and materials play a vital role in determining the extent of best laboratory practices that will ensure acquisition of science process skills and competence in science concepts by the learner.

Science education is the type of education that deal with nature and body of knowledge which gave birth to several science discipline such as biology, physics, chemistry, agriculture, basic science and technology. Science education as a field of study is concerned with producing a scientifically literate society. It acquaints students with certain basic knowledge, skills and attitude needed for future work in science and science related field.

The national Policy on Education FME (2014), states that science education shall emphasize the teaching of science process and principles. This programme will lead to fundamental and applied research in science at all levels of our education. One of the aims of science education is to help student gain an understanding of as much of the established body of scientific knowledge as it is related to their needs, interest and capacities (Mankilik, 2011). This is in line with the general aims of teaching science as stipulated in national policy on education FRN, (2014). Aleyieino (2010),opined that sound science education is accepted worldwide as a bedrock of human development and progress. For science teacher to play their role in teaching science subject effectively, laboratory facilities should be make available and it should be used effectively to improve the performance of students’ in physics(Ugwuanyi, 2013). Physics being an integral branch in science education, the laboratory facilities and equipment which students are exposed to remain crucial to their performance.

Physics is the basic science subject that deals with those fundamental questions on the structure of matter and interaction of elementary constituents of nature that are susceptible to experimental investigation and theoretical inquiry. According to Boyo (2010), physics is seen as a course of study which is perceived to be experimental and that almost all aspect of science, both living and non-living has something to do with physics, ranging from engineering to mathematics, biology and chemistry. Physics being a branch of science is crucial for effective in the modern age of science and technology. Given its application in industry and many other professions, it is necessary that every student is given an opportunity to acquire some of its concepts, principles and skills (FME/NERDCE, 2013). The general objective of the physics curriculum at secondary school levels of education as itemized by (FME/NERDC, 2013) are:

  • To provide basic literacy in physics for functional living in the society
  • To acquire basics concepts and principles of physics as a preparation for further studies
  • To acquire essential scientific skills and attitude as a preparation for technological application of physics.
  • To stimulate and enhance creativity.

The above stated objective cannot be achieved without a well-equipped laboratory and the proper utilization of the available laboratory equipment, since physics is a subject that can only be understood by students through their active participation. Physics as one of the science subject has remained one of the most difficult subject in the school curriculum NERDC (2013). According to Adodo and Oyeniyi (2013), physics is a key science subject offered by most Senior Secondary school students. Physics as a science subject is activity oriented and the suggested method for teaching it which is guided discovery methods is resource-based. National Teacher institute (2007). This suggests that the mastery of physics concepts cannot be fully achieved without the use of the laboratory facilities effectively.

THE USE OF LABORATORY FACILITIES AND SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL PHYSICS STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN WAEC EXAMINATION IN IBESIKPO ASUTAN LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA