THE USE OF LOCAL BUILDING MATERIALS FOR BUILDING CONSTRUCTION A CASE STUDY OF OVIA NORTH EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT

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TABLE OF CONTENT
Coverpage ………………………………………….………………………..…………..……..i
Title page ………………………………………….………………………..…………………..ii
Certification ……………………………………………………………………………….…..iii
Dedication ……….………………………………………………………………..…….……..iv
Acknowledgement…………………………………………………………………..…………v
Table of content……………………….……………………………………………..………..vi
List of tables …………………………………………………………………….……….……viii
Abstract…………………………………………………………..…………………….……….ix

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study…………………………………….……………………………1
Statement of the Problem………………………………………………….…………..…2
Aim and Objectives………………………………………………………..………………2
1.4 Significance of the Study……………………………………………………………..…..3
1.5 Scope and limitation……………………………………………………………………..…..3
1.6 Definition of Terms……………………………………………………………………….…..3

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 African Architecture……………………………………………………………….….4
2.2 Local Building Materials………………………………………………………….…….4
2.2.1 Potential of Local Building Materials……………………………..…………………..5
2.2.2 Substructure/Foundation………………………………………………..……………..9
2.2.3 Flooring………………………………………………………..……………….………9
2.2.4 Wall and Structural Frames…………………………..………………………..………9
2.2.5 Roofing………………………………………..….……………………………………10
2.2.6 Finishes/Fitting………………..……………………………………………………..10
2.3 The Benefit of Local Building Materials……………………………..…….……..10
2.4 Advantages of Local Building Materials……………………………..………..…..11
2.4.1 Availability……………………….……………………………………………………11
2.4.2 Affordation………………………………………………………………….………11
2.4.3 Energy Efficiency……………………………………………….………………….…….12
2.4.4 Ozone Friendly……………………….………………………………………..……..13
2.4.5 Reusability…………….……………………………………………………………..13
2.4.6 Biodegradability……………………………………………….……………..……..13
2.5 Problems in the Use of Local Building Materials………………………….…………13
2.6 The Role of Building Material Technology…………………………………..……14
2.7 The National Housing Policy and Local Building materials……………………….16

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research design…………………………………………………………………………….17
3.2 Target Population……………………………………………………………………….……17
3.3 Methods of Sampling………………………………………………………………..……….17
3.4 Sample Size……………………………………………………………………………….18
3.5 Research Tools……………………………………………………………………………18
3.6 Sources of data ……………………………………………………………………………….19
3.7 Test of Reliability……………………………………………………………………..…….19

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS.
4.1 Result…………………………………………………………………………………………20
4.2 Discussion of findings………………………………………………………..……….33

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION.
5.1 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………..…..34
5.2 Recommendations……………………………………………………………………..34
References …………………………………………………………………………..….36

LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1: Imported Building Material for Building Construction in Nigeria and the alternative Local Building Materials……………………………………..……………………..…….6
Table 4.1: Response Rate of Questionnaire Distribution …………………..……….….20
Table 4.2: Respondent’s Years of Experience ………………………………………..…21
Table 4.3: Respondent’s Academic Qualification Educational……………………….……..21
Table 4.4: Factors affecting the use of local building material …………………..…….22
Table 4.5: Mean Scores of the benefit of local Building materials ……………………..…24

LIST OF FIGURE
Figure 4.1: Wood construction………………………………………………………….28
Figure 4.2:Wood construction in Roof …………………………………………………29
Figure 4.3:Bamboo in construction site…………………………………………….….30
Figure 4.4: Mud block…………………………………………………………..…….….31
Figure 4.5: Mud block as a building materials ……………..……………………….….32

LIST OF APPENDIX
Appendix I………………………………………………………………………..…….40

ABSTRACT
Building materials often constitute the single largest input to housing construction in most developing country cities particularly in Africa. This study therefore investigates the usage of local materials in building projects. The objectives are to find out the sort of local materials used in building construction, the factors that affect their usage, benefits of local materials and ways of improving their qualities. Therefore, related literatures were reviewed on sub heading that concerns the subject matter in order to achieve the aim of the study.The study also utilized field survey research design. The population of the study is the construction professionals that are involved in the usage of local materials. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. 90 questionnaires were distributed for the study. Out of this 75 were returned valid. Five point Lickert scale was used to elicit responses and data collected analysed using frequency count and percentages (%). The findings of the research work indicated factors affecting the use of local building material, benefit of local building material and also ways of improving the quality of local building materials.Durability and cost of production contribute most among 14 factors that contribute to the usage of local materials while air quality properties have least contribution. It cuts down or reduces price in a relative term and Production of local building materials definitely creates employment for the labour marketstand top among the eight benefits of local materials highlighted in this study. However, the high cost of materials for building houses is a serious challenge militating against delivery of decent mass housing. This study thus, canvases the improvement and adoption of local building materials for effective housing.
KEYWORDS: Building material, Local building material, Improvement, Cost of materials, Nigeria.

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In the traditional societies, man depended on natural sources of energy and available local materials for construction purposes according to his physiological needs. Thus, using the locally available materials, they built houses that were more or less satisfactory in providing them with the microclimate they needed. The Industrial Revolution ushered in innovations in structural building practices based primarily on the classical designs of earlier cultures. The new structural forms, the invention of Portland cement and the development of an efficient steel production process shifted the emphasis from stone and bricks to iron, steel and concrete construction. There are lots of building materials that can be sourced locally for construction purpose. Material is a major component of construction cost and a reduction in the cost of material can also result to reduction in over all construction cost. One major way to bring down the cost of materials for affordable housing is a shift toward the usage of local materials. Aribigbola (2011) asserted that affordable housing is that which cost the occupant not more than 30% of their annual income and less than 20% annual income in Nigeria based on the stipulation of the Nigerian housing policy. Inspite of several governmental efforts and policies, construction of affordable and functional buildings in Nigeria have gone beyond the reach of common man (Aribigbola, 2011). Gumel (2000) stated that materials accounts for between 55% to 65% of construction cost and most of the materials used in Nigeria are imported. However, Windapo and Iyagba (2007) postulated that materials are about 35% to 37% of construction cost component, which is far less than the finding (Gumel, 2000). Consequently, the general consensus is that one key reason for high cost of construction in Nigeria is high cost of building materials which are largely imported materials. This is so because several factors affect imported materials prices such as foreign exchange, freight, inflation, import duties and so on. Similarly, Oruwari, Jev and Owei (2002) stated that the rising cost of building due to materials has made it impossible for people to own affordable houses in Nigeria. It can therefore be inferred that local building materials are not well utilized in Nigeria. Ademiluyi (2010) suggests that a shift towards the usage of local building materials will ameliorate the scenario of high construction cost in Nigeria. In Nigeria, local building materials are found in large quantities and varieties, although these materials are dependent upon the geographical location of the area. The objectives of this study are to examine the usage of local building materials in Nigeria, find out the factors that enhance their usage, pin point their benefits and identify ways to improve their qualities.

1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
Olayiwola, Adeleye and Ogunshakin (2005) suggest the use of local building materials to reduce construction cost in Nigeria as it has been done profitably in Tanzania and Sweden. Similarly, Daramola (2006) emphasizes the need to embrace the usage of local building materials to achieve functional and affordable housing scheme in Nigeria. This research therefore, will examine the usage of local building materials in Nigeria and also find out the factors affecting the use of local building materials for building construction.

THE USE OF LOCAL BUILDING MATERIALS FOR BUILDING CONSTRUCTION A CASE STUDY OF OVIA NORTH EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT