TRANSLATION INTO FRENCH OF MIGRATION AND MOBILITY IN GHANA Trends, Issues, and Emerging Research Gaps

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It takes more than just knowledge of two or more languages to translate successfully because a word in one language seldom covers exactly the same ground as its equivalent, if there is such a thing, in another language. Often, the translator must choose from among several similar words, considering the subject, context, style and many other factors. Making the right choice could be crucial. That is why an in-depth understanding of the subject matter is required if one is to be a professional in translation. Professional skill in translation comes gradually with experience on the ground through internship and later on in the translation career. After the internship a report follows to make room for the student to put in writing experiences gained, challenges faced, weaknesses exposed and tasks accomplished. What were the duties during this internship? What were the challenges and experiences?

These questions are answered in the internship report. The report is followed by the translation of a part of a book entitled: “Migration and Mobility in Ghana” Trends, Issues, and Emerging Research Gaps. ’It was published by five authors in 2011, from research undertaken as part of the ‘African Perspectives on Human Mobility Programme co-ordinated by the International Migration Institute (IMI), Oxford University.

The second chapter features the text to be translated while chapter three presents the translated text and finally chapter four focuses on analysis of the source and target texts.

Analysis is a very important aspect of the dissertation project. Apart from scientific approaches, namely, semantic and grammatical factors, I also explain socio-linguistic or extra linguistic elements in the text.

How are scientific approaches used in text analysis? How can a translator be able to render accurate translation? What is accurate translation?

Throughout the report, the translation focuses not on word for word translation but on the meaning, the message conveyed by the sentences or thoughts.

Charles Taber and Eugène Nida in the chapter entitled: ‘What is translation ‘of the book ‘The theory and practice of translation’, they define translation ‘not in terms of conveying a text from source language into a text in a target language, but in terms of reproducing accurately the import of the message from the first language into the target language’..

According to Maurice Pergnier, ‘a message roots out its sense from a specific situation and criteria used to assess fidelity in translation are in this situation and is determined according to the addressees’.

The dissertation report ends with a conclusion and recommendations as well as glossary where I listed research words during our translation project. My work may serve as a stepping stone for other translators or researchers.

LISTE DES ABRÉVIATIONS ET SIGLES LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

 EnglishFrench
ADHA  AdditionalDutyHourAllowanceAllocations        pour        heures supplémentaires
AU  African Union  Union Africaine(UA)
  DAIA  Deprived Area Incentive Allowancel’Allocation d’encouragement dans les zones d’habitation précaire
  DFIDDepartment         for                            International DevelopmentDépartement           pour           le développement international (DFID)
DSW  Department of Social WelfareDépartement de la protection sociale
  ECOWASThe Economic Community of West AfricaCommunauté Économique des États de l’Afrique de l’Ouest (CEDEAO)
EU  European Union  Union Européenne (UE)
GDP  Gross Domestic Product  ProduitIntérieur brut (PIB)
GPRS  Ghana Poverty Reduction StrategyStratégie     de     croissance     et réduction de la pauvreté
GSS  Ghana Statistical Service  Service statistique du Ghana
HIPC  Heavily Indebted Poor Countries  Pays pauvres très endettés
  ISSERThe Institute for Social, Statistical and Economic ResearchL’Institut de Recherche Statistique, Sociale et Économique
LEAPLivelihood    Empowerment                      Against Poverty  Aide financière aux pauvres
MMYEMinistry of Manpower, Youth and EmploymentMinistère de la main-d’œuvre, de la jeunesse et de l’emploi
MOFA RIMinistry of Foreign Affairs and Regional IntegrationMinistère des affaires étrangères et de l’intégration régionale
NEPADNew Partnership for Africa’s DevelopmentNouveau Partenariat pour le Développement de l’Afrique
NHIS  National Health Insurance Scheme  Plan national d’assurance santé
NYEPNational Youth Employment ProgrammeProgramme national d’emploi pour les jeunes
  UNDPUnited Nations Development ProgrammeProgramme des Nations Unies pour le Développement (PNUD)
  UNECA  United Nations Economic Commission for AfricaCommission Économiques des Nations Unies pour l’Afrique (CENUA)
UNHCR  United Nations High Commissioner for RefugeesHaut Commissariat des Nations Unies pour les Refugiés (HCNUR)
  UNICEF  United Nations Children’s FundFonds des Nations Unies pour l’Enfance (UNICEF)
  UNODCUnited Nations Office on Drugs and CrimeL’Office des Nations Unies contre la Drogue et le Crime (ONUDC)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Declaration………………………………………………………………………………………………………. i

Dedication………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ii

Acknowledgement………………………………………………………………………………………….. iii

Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. iv

List of Abbreviations and Acronyms…………………………………………………………………. vi

Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1

Chapter  I Internship Report…………………………………………………………………………. 5

  1. Internship context………………………………………………………………………………………. 5
    1. Profile of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Regional Integration…………………… 6
      1. Vision and adjustment…………………………………………………………………… 6

1.2.2 .Functions of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Regional Integration.. 7

Chapter II Source Text…………………………………………………………………………………. 16

ChapterIIITranslated document……………………………………………………………………. 44

Chapter IV Analysis of Source and Target Texts…………………………………………… 73

Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 78

Bibliography………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 81

Glossary………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 84

Annexe…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 86

Internship approval letter………………………………………………………………………………… 86

Non official translation of documents and Notes Verbales………………………………….. 87

Introduction

In order to offer Students in the Master of Arts programme in Translation the opportunity to acquire practical experience, they are required to do internship. This arrangement helps students to enhance their knowledge and professional experience since the professional field is far different from the academic environment. Professional skill in translation comes gradually when the students are faced with  the reality on the ground.

The internship also helps the student to know how to always submit a neat and genuine translated work to his superior. According to Furco (1996) internships are defined as “programmes engaging students in service activitiesprimarily for the purpose of providing them with hands-on experience that enhances their learning or understanding of issues relevant to a particular area of study”.

McMahon and Quinn (1995)note that ‘internships are supervised work experiences whereby students leave their institutions and get engaged in work related programmes, during which period they are closely supervised by experienced job incumbents. ’That means internship is not only important but very necessary to complete students’ training.According to the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE), new college graduates who had participated in internships did far better on the job market than their classmates who had not had that experience.1 Finally internship helps students to gain confidence by being able to say with certainty that ‘I know how to do it’ not ‘I will be able to do it’ or ‘I will try’. We have done the internship and here is the report with different parts as followed

  1. Journal of NACE November 2012 (National Association of Colleges and Employers) Pennsylvania, USA,

.We will discuss in the first chapter the context of the internship in a Ministry, especially the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Regional Integration of the Republic of Ghana.

What were my duties during this internship? What were the challenges and experiences?

These questions will be answered in our observations on the internship. The report is followed by the translation of a document. We present in the second chapter the source text first, which is an extract from a book entitled: “Migration and Mobility in Ghana” Trends, Issues, and Emerging Research Gaps.’It was published by five authors in 2011, from research undertaken as part of the ‘African Perspectives on Human Mobility Programmeco-ordinated by the International Migration Institute (IMI), Oxford University. This chapter also features the text to be translated while chapter three presents the translated text and finally chapter four focuses on analysis of the source and target texts. Analysis is a very important aspect of the dissertation project. Apart from scientific approaches, namely semantic and grammatical factors, we will also explain socio-linguistic or extra linguistic elements in the text. How are scientific approaches used in text analysis? How can a translator be able to render accurate translation? What is accurate translation?

Let’s illustrate what accurate translation involves: A man, who steps on someone’s foot, says to the latter ‘doucement’ in French (which means ‘slowly’ in English) instead of saying ‘Sorry’ or ‘Excuse me’ Is there anything wrong? Yes, in some Ewe- speaking community when someone steps on a person, they say in Ewe ‘blewu’ which translates ‘doucement’ in French. Most of the time, people transliterate this expression into French.

It is literal translation that can be an offense to the victim since the person stepping unknowingly rather will do things slowly not the one on whom he steps. That iswhy Georges Mouninsaid: « Tout le monde est d’accord aujourd’hui pour condamner la traduction mot à mot; le mot à mot souvent incorrect et presque toujours plat ; le mot à mot qui trahit aussi sûrement le texte que les infidélités les plus désinvoltes ». (Now, everybody condemns word for word translation; which is often incorrect and almost nonsense; word for word translation misunderstands the text as well as extreme level of accuracy) Throughout our report, the translation will focus not on word by word translation but on the meaning, the message conveyed by the sentences or thoughts.

Charles Taber and EugèneNida in the chapter entitled: ‘What is translation ‘of the book ‘The theory and practice of translation’, they define translation ‘not in terms of conveying a text from source language into a text in a target language, but in terms of reproducing accurately the import of the message from the first language into the target language’.2

According to Maurice Pergnier, ‘a message roots out its sense from a specific situation and criteria used to assess fidelity in translation are in this situation and is determined according to the addressees’. 3

It is true that deciphering a message and getting the real meaning and taking in the context of situation and culture, can only lead to a faithful and accurate translation. This meaning of the message is linked to what we call situation and context. What people exchange in communication is not the language but messages.

2The theory and practice of translation’ Eugene etNida

3Les fondementssociolinguistiques de la traduction de Maurice Pergnier

The meaning of the message is the paramount element in translation. It means that the translation is based neither on language, nor words but on the meaning, or the message conveyed.

The extract I have chosen is a technical research text. We will translate the message from English into French. The translation will be done while considering the scientific approach of Maurice Pergnier concerning message conveyed from source language to the target language. In terms of analysis of the source text, Christiane Nord recommends that ‘before embarking upon any translation the translator should analyze the text comprehensively, since this appears to be the only way of ensuring that the source text has been wholly and correctly understood’4

Finally our dissertation report ends with a conclusion and recommendations as well as glossary where we listed research words during our translation project. Our work may serve as a stepping stones for other translators or researchers.

4Christiane Nord, 2006 page 1.

CHAPTER I

Internship Report

1.1 Internship Context

Upon receiving an official letter of introduction from the Department of Modern Languages, I submitted the letter to the Administration of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Regional Integration. At the appointed time, I accepted the approval letter and was assigned to the Africa and Regional Integration Bureau, one of the most important units of the Ministry.

The main objective of internship has to do with firsthand experience in a real working environment, having the opportunity to gain more experience on the ground, to discover my strengths and weaknesses and to identify the challenges in the field of translation in order to cope with them.

I was fortunate to carry out my internship at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Regional Integration, a prominent place that gave me considerable knowledge about Ghana’s diplomatic relations. As an intern, I undertook different tasks including translating letters, processing faxes and other documents from high-profile authorities. I was wondering what work I could expect to do but upon commencement, I realized that I had an excellent opportunity in the sense that I worked in the best environment since I have the opportunity to translate confidential letters and documents. I was asked to proofread documents and interpret.

On my first day as an intern, I was introduced to the directors, officers and the different sections in the Africa Bureau. The first week of my internship was more of an orientation of my area of work.

My report comprises four different sections; the first one provides general information about the Ministry and its vision and structure, the second section focuses on my duties and tasks during the internship, the third section is devoted to the knowledge and experiences gained and finally the fourth section includes the critical evaluation and future orientation of my career as a professional translator.

    Profile of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Regional Integration

Established in 1957, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is the body responsible for the conducts of Ghana’s external relations as spelt out in Articles 40, 41, 73 and 84 of the 1992 Constitution of the Fourth Republic.

                Vision and Mission of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Regional Integration

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs & Regional Integration exists to promote and protect the interest of Ghana and its citizens abroad and to enhance Ghana’s security and prosperity by promoting friendly relations and economic integration between Ghana and other countries and enhancing Ghana’s image abroad; Ghanaian exports, tourism potential, attracting foreign investments for Ghana and enhancing scientific, technological and cultural links between Ghana and other States; and then by providing economic, political and security information and advice to Government, playing a positive and creative role as a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the Economic Community of West African States, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Commonwealth and other international organizations to which

Ghana belongs; and finally assisting diplomatic missions, international organizations

and foreign NGOs in the discharge of their legitimate duties in Ghana.5

5. http://ghana.peacefmonline.com/ghana/ministries/mofa/

  • Functions of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Regional Integration The Ministry controls, directs and coordinates Ghana’s external relations and closely collaborates with other Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs) to facilitate the realization of Government’s agenda including efforts in the areas of trade and investment promotion.

In addition to the core functions carried out to achieve the objectives contained in the Mission Statement of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Regional Integration, the following functions are also undertaken:

  1. Dissemination of general information on Ghana within the international community;
  2. Co-ordination of the interaction between the Government of Ghana and foreign Governments.
  3. Assistance to national security agencies in safeguarding and protecting the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ghana.
  4. Promotion and maintenance of international peace and security and the policy of good neighbourliness with Ghana’s immediate neighbours;
  5. Issuance of passports and other travel documents; and provision of protocol services;

                     Structure and organization of The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Regional Integration

Political and Economic Departments of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Regional Integration:

  1. Africa and Regional Bureau
  • America Bureau
  • Middle East and Asia Bureau
  • Economic Trade and Investment
  • Europe Bureau

                      The Africa and Regional Integration Bureau

The Africa and Regional Integration Bureau and African Union Bureau are responsible for:

  • the provision of the necessary inputs for the formulation of Ghana’s African policy;
  • the coordination of Ghana’s African policy and (iii)the implementation of Ghana’s African policy.

The objective of Ghana’s African Policy is to promote peace, security, stability, greater integration and sustainable political, economic and social development of the continent. To this end, the Bureau liaises constantly with Ghana’s diplomatic missions in Africa, African diplomatic missions in Ghana and other Ghanaian MDAs, especially the Ministry of Regional Integration.