USE OF VISUAL AND AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS AND ITS EFFECT ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF BIOLOGY STUDENTS IN PRIVATE SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ETINAN LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Researchers have shown that there is correlation between instructional materials and the academic performance of student (Oyinloye & Ajayi, 2008), (Katherine, 2009). Despite this submission, teachers in private schools still find it difficult to make use of instructional materials in the teaching and learning process. Therefore, this study seeks to evaluate the importance of visual and audio-visual aids and the academic performance of student in private secondary Schools in Etinan Local Government Area.
Learning can be reinforced with instructional materials of different variety because they stimulate, motivate and as well as arrest learner’s attention during the instruction process. The performance of student in their academic work depends on a number of factors. The provision of the right facilities must be followed by appropriate and right use to which the facilities are put. Furthermore, instructors are the key factors in student’s performance and must be well trained to optimize the use of the instructional materials to enhance teaching (Adufe, 2007). Instructional materials are learning aids and devices through which teaching and learning are done in schools. According to Kunari (2006) instructional materials are those materials used in classrooms or workshops for instruction or demonstration purpose by the students and teachers. Instructional materials are essential and significant tools needed for teaching and learning of school subjects to promote teacher’s efficiency and improve student’s performances. They make learning more interesting, practical, realistic and appealing. They also enable both the teacher s and student to participate actively and effectively lesson session. They give room for acquisitions of skills and knowledge and development of self-confidence and self actualization.
Agina-Obu (2005) submitted that instructional materials of all kinds appeal to the sense organ during teaching and learning. Isola (2010) also described instructional mat4erials as objects or devices that assist the teacher to present their lesson logically and sequentially to the learners. Oluwagbohunmi & Abdu-Raheem (2014) acknowledged that instructional materials are such used by the teachers to aid explanations and make learning of subject matter understandable to student during teaching learning process. Asuquo (2007) explain that instructional materials as actual equipment used as “hand on” process by learners in order to develop the degree of skills sought by the course of requirement.
Instructional materials can be divided into major categories, namely: audio, visual, audio-visual and ICT (Information and Communication Technology), Isola (2010). Audio instructional materials are those that appeal to the auditory senses such as radio, audio tapes, VCDs, DVD and others. Visual instructional materials appeal to the sense of sight and they come in forms of pictures, prints, real objects (models) etc. audio-visual combine the auditory and visual sense to appeal to the learner and heighten interest such materials take the form of films, television, audio-visual tapes and CDs. ICT has delivered several packages that can aid teaching and learning to achieve desirable learning objectives. These packages are found in mobile devices like smart phones, personal computers, internet facilities and the likes. ICTs provide lot of learning experiences to student with varied interest and capabilities. Pictorials illustration help to connect and relate abstract concept with objectives visual realities for the student to understand and grasp more easily the ideas represented by the invisible abstract concept. Projected visuals are able to convey information and specific experiences that are needed for the development of workable concepts. Films can modify motivations, interest, attitude and opinions. Relia (real objects) or three-dimensional models can be effective in teaching and learning as the student learn a great deal by examining and manipulating a model.
Visual aids are important in education system. Visual aids are those devices which are used in classrooms to encourage student learning process and make it easier and interesting. Visual aids are the best tools for making teaching effective and the best dissemination of knowledge. A research by Cuban (2001) indicated that the psychology of visual aids as under 1% of what is learned is from the sense of TASTE, 1.5% of what is learned is from sense of TOUCH, 3.5% of what is learned is from logic of smell 11% of what is learnt is from the logic of HEARING and 83% of what is learned is from the sense of SIGHT. Also, people generally remember, 10% of what they READ, 20% of what they HEAR, 30% of what they SEE, 50% of what they HEAR and SEE, 70% of what they SAY and 90% of what they SAY as they DO a thing. Thouless (2011) stated that the teaching of any topic will be more effective, if they spoken or written materials are accompanied with visual materials either in the form of pictures, charts, diagrams. This research has shown that even the use of pictorial illustration in a textbook does not necessarily help in the acquisition of knowledge from the text than the practical use of those materials.
Webster’s Encyclopedia unabridged Dictionary of the English language (2009) defines audio-visual aids as “training or educational materials directed at both the senses of hearing and the sense of sight, films, recordings, photographs used in classroom instructions, library collection or the likes”. The term has also been defined by Dike (2003) as; those materials which do not depend solely upon reading to convey meaning. They may present information through the sense of hearing as in audio resources, sight, as in visual resources or through a combination of senses – Audio-visual materials are most effective tools for developing flawless communication and interaction between student and content as well as student and teacher. These aids not only help to save time of teaching bit also help in developing and arousing curiosity, creativity and motivation. Audio-visual aids are good means of communicating with people and students, (Oketunji, 2000). Audio-visual aids facilitate and assist the regular ad traditional teaching sessions. They help in maintaining and retaining student’s interest almost till the very end of the classroom session. The use of audiovisual aids in classroom or other training sessions improves the performances of students. When a teacher gives maximum exposure along with different perspectives; using variety of audio-visual aids for particular concept maximum receives success in comprehending such lecture. Audio-visual aids are tools for machines used to facilitate the learning experience of the individual and to make it more realistic and dynamic (Oketunji, 2000).
According to Kunari (2006) audio-visual materials refers to the devices of hardware and softwares through which the learning process can be encouraged and carried on, such devices includes models and mock-ups, videotaped instructional package film strips instructional television, slides and transparencies pictorial illustrations, graphic materials and maps; and three dimensional figures. They could include audio visual and computers.
In the light of the findings of studies quoted above, the researcher has decided to conduct a study of visual and audio=-visual materials and its effects on the academic performance of student in private secondary schools in Etinan Local Government Area.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Educators have realized the value of audio-visual resources, not as a separate subject, or a teaching project, but as an effective method of teaching providing for the presentation of knowledge through seeing and learning experience. The gain audio visual resources in the teaching and learning processes must be consolidated. Visual experiences are more effective than verbal experiences as the combination of sound and vision make class dramatic and imaginative. Despite the importance of audio-visual in the teaching and learning process, most teachers still prefer the conventional method of teaching; this therefore makes this study necessary.

1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
Generally, the purpose of this study was to;

  1. determine the difference in the academic performance of students in Biology taught using visual instructional materials and those taught using conventional method materials.
  2. determine the difference in the academic performance of students in Biology taught using audio-visual instructional materials and those taught using conventional method materials.
  3. determine the difference in the academic performance of students in Biology taught using audio-visual instructional materials and those taught using visual instructional materials.
    1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
    The following research questions were formulated to guide this study.
  4. What is the difference in the academic performance of students in Biology taught using visual instructional materials and those taught using conventional materials in private schools in Etinan Local Government Area?
  5. What is the difference in the academic performance of students in Biology taught using audio-visual instructional materials and those taught using conventional method materials in private schools in Etinan Local Government Area?
  6. Is there any difference in the academic performance of students in Biology taught using audio-visual instructional materials and those taught using visual instructional materials in private schools in Etinan Local Government Area?

1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
In order to achieve the purpose of this study, the following null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance to guide the study.
H01: There is no significant difference in the academic performance of students in Biology taught using visual instructional materials and those taught using conventional method materials in private schools in Etinan Local Government Area.
H02: There is no significant difference in the academic performance of students in Biology taught using audio-visual instructional materials and those taught using conventional method in private schools in Etinan Local Government Area.
H03: There is no significant difference in the academic performance of students in Biology taught using audio-visual instructional materials and those taught using instructional materials in private schools in Etinan Local Government Area.

USE OF VISUAL AND AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS AND ITS EFFECT ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF BIOLOGY STUDENTS IN PRIVATE SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ETINAN LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA