UTILIZATION OF DONABEDIAN MODEL IN EVALUATION OF MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTHCARE QUALITY SERVICE IN SELECTED HEALTH CARE FACILITIES IN ILE-IFE

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OF CONTENTS

Content                                                                                                     Page

Title page                                                                                                 i

Certification                                                                                              ii

Dedication                                                                                                    iii

Acknowledgements

Abstract                                                                                            v

Table of Contents                                                                                    vi

List of Tables                                                                                          viii

List of Figures                                                                                        ix

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

  1. Background to the Study                                                1
  2. Statement of the Problem                                                                         3
  3. Objective of the Study                                                                             4
  4. Research Questions                                                                      5
  5. Hypotheses                                                                                   5
  6. Scope of the Study                                                                                             5
  7. Significance of the Study                                                                    5
  8. Operational Definition of Terms                                                            6

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.0. Introduction                                                                                     8

2.1. Maternal and Child Health Service                                                8

2.2. Incidence of Maternal and Child Mortality                                                10

2.3. Maternal Mortality in Nigeria                                                                     11

2.4. Availability of Skilled Personnel for MCH Services in Nigeria                                12

2.5. Health Facilities Assessment                                18

2.6. Quality of Maternal and Child Health Services                                      19

2.7. Client Satisfaction with Maternal and Child Health Services              23

2.8. Factor that Determine Client Satisfaction                                                 27

2.9. Conceptual Model             29                                                           

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

3.0 Introduction                                                                                        33

3.1 Research Design                                                                                      33

3.2 Population                                                                                            33

3.3 Sample size and sampling Technique                                        33

3.4 Instrument for Data Collection                                                                    36

3.5 Validity and reliability of the Instruments         36

3.6 Data Collection Procedure                                                               37

3.7 Method of Data Analysis                                                                  37

3.8 Ethical Consideration                  

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

OF FINDINGS

4.0 Introduction                                                                                         39

4.1 Result Presentation    39

4.2. Data Analysis                                                                                                39

4.3. Discussion of Findings                                                                                56

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Summary                                                                                                62

5.2 Conclusion                                                                                                     63

5.3 Recommendations                                                                            63

5.4 Limitation of the Study                                                                             64

5.5 Suggestion for Further Studied  64

REFERENCES                              65

APPENDICES                                       73                                                                                      

LIST OF TABLES

Table                                                                                                         Page

1: Demographic data of the Participants (Structure and Process)                              39

2: Demographic data of Respondents on client satisfaction (Outcome)                    41

3: Structure of MCH in Primary and Secondary health facilities       43

4: Process of MCH in Primary and Secondary health facilities                        47

5 Client’s satisfaction with MCH services in Primary and Secondaryhealth facilities           50

6: Categories and Number of personnel for MCH services in health facilities                        53

7: T-Test for the structure of MCH in Primary and Secondary health facilities                       54

8: T-Test for the process of MCH in Primary and Secondary health facilities.                      54

9: T-Test for the client satisfaction of MCH in Primary and Secondary facilities                  55                                                                              

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure                                                                                             Page

1: Conceptual Framework for quality of MCH services                                                       31

2: Bar chart showing the percentage of Personnel with Training in MCH services   44

3. Bar Chart showing Physical facilities that are available and in good working conditions in percentages                                            45

4. Bar chart showing the percentage distribution of Maternal and Child health care services (Process) rendered by selected heath facilities     48

5. Bar charts showing clients satisfaction with MCH services in Health facilities in percentages                                                                                   51

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

The quality of care received during pregnancy and the place of delivery are great determinants of maternal and child morbidity and mortality. Improving and sustaining the quality of care in healthcare institutions has been an area of concerns and recurrent issue over the year. The client’s expression of satisfaction with the quality of health care can provide insightful feedback for healthcare providers, managers and policy makers to direct quality improvement efforts in a right direction (Beattie, Lauder, Atherton, Murphy 2014). Quality assessment is an important aspect of quality assurance which focus on identification of barriers and challenges in a system and not just bad performers (Tobin-West and Anastasia 2016).

 On yearly basis, an average of 289 000 women reportedly die as a result of complications associated with pregnancy and child delivery. Also, about 6.6 million under 5 year old children death resulted from complications in the neonatal period and early childhood illness (World Health Organization (WHO), 2013). These deaths are preventable with provision of quality and optimal maternal and child health care in health facilities.

Although remarkable achievement has been recorded in some areas of reproductive, women and children health interventions over the years, little progress has been recorded in efforts directed towards improvement of maternal and child health outcomes due to a wide gap between the scope and the quality of health care provided in facilities (WHO, UNICEF, 2014). Quality of care is considered very important in the international initiatives and Global Strategy for Every Woman and Child.

Yearly, about 500,000 women and girls die due to complications arising from pregnancy, labour and or the 6 weeks post- delivery. Majority of these mortality happen in less developed countries (United Nations Millennium Development Goals 2009), making the process of delivery one of the most dreaded journeys for women of child bearing age. This is worrying some as statistical findings showed that the extent of maternal mortality in low and middle income countries resulting from pregnancy and childbirth is on the increase (United Nations Children Fund     (UNICEF) Nigeria, 2014).

Similarly, the risk of death from conception and child delivery in Nigeria is ratio 1 to 13.On daily basis, about 2,300 under-five year old children and 145 women in their reproductive years die in Nigeria. With these figures, Nigeria was rated the second largest country contributing to the under–five and maternal death in the world. Many of these deaths could be prevented but for Nigeria’s coverage and quality of health care services that continue to fall short of expectation for women and children. According to United Nations International Children Fund (UNICEF), Nigeria (2014) report, less than 20% of health facilities in the country provide emergency obstetric care (Eoc) and about 35% of deliveries are taken by health professionals.

 A national health policy formulated for Nigerians in 1988 was targeted at achieving quality health for all.  Emerging health issues and the realities to focus on new trends prompted the review of the policy over the years to improve quality in health care services across the nation (Nigeria Demographic Survey, 2013). A health delivery system targeting reduction in maternal morbidity and mortality must ensure quality reproductive care for this group of people (United States Agency for International Development (USAID), 2013).

Donabedian model was developed in 1966 for assessing healthcare services and to evaluate quality of health care.  The model was revised in 1988 and provides information about quality of care using three categories which are structure, process, and outcomes. Structure describes the context in which care is delivered, including hospital buildings, staff, financing, and equipment. Process involves the transactions between patients and healthcare professionals throughout the delivery of healthcare. Outcomes refers to the effects of healthcare on the health status of client and client satisfaction. Since then other quality of care frameworks, including the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended Quality of Care Framework and the Bamako Initiative etc. have been developed but the Donabedian Model continues to be the dominant framework for assessing the quality of health care up till today (Lawson and Yazdany 2012). In 2013, World Health Organization and Partnership for Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health used Donabedian model to develop key indicators for quality in Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health care.

Maternal health care is the care a woman receives during conception, delivery, and post- delivery, it is crucial for the survival and well-being of mother and child. It comprises a broad range of services like family planning, prenatal, intrapartum, and postpartum care with the focus of minimizing maternal death and disability (Franny, 2013).

 Improving the quality of obstetric care in facilities has recently been identified as a neglected and essential approach to reducing maternal deaths and enabling developing countries to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 3 (SDG 3) which is good health and well- being especially for women (Van den Broek and Graham 2009). Postpartum hemorrhage is the most frequent cause of maternal deaths globally and in developing countries, accounting for 25% of maternal deaths. Next are hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (PE/E) at 15%, sepsis (8%) and obstructed labor (7%).2 Effective interventions exist for screening, preventing and treating obstetric and newborn complications, and they can be readily provided by skilled providers in facilities. However, achieving both high quality and coverage of these interventions is essential in order to reduce maternal and newborn deaths globally. International evidence suggests that the most important factor in reducing maternal and early neonatal mortality is the attendance of a skilled birth provider and provision of quality care (USAID/MCHIP 2013).

According to Kana, Doctor, Peleteiro, Lunet and Barros (2015), poor maternal and child health indicators have been a recurrent issue in Nigeria since the 1990s, and many interventions have been instituted to reverse the trend and ensure that Nigeria provides quality maternal and child health care.

However, various intervention reports have documented mixed findings of the successes and challenges as well as threats to the attainment of quality maternal and child health care in Nigeria. It has been observed that Nigeria is lagging behind in meeting MDG 4 and according to the United Nations mortality estimates, Nigeria has only achieved an average of 1.2% annual reduction in under-five mortality since 1990. And in order to meet MDG 4, Nigeria needed to have achieved an annual reduction rate of 10% in the five years leading to 2015 (Rajaratnam , Marcus , Flaxman , Wang , Levin-Rector , Dwyer , et al 2010).

Therefore, improving and ensuring quality of health care services in health facilities, developing strategies for quality serve as an integral component of scaling up interventions to improve health outcomes of mothers, newborns and children is of utmost importance (WHO, 2013).

1.2   Statement of the Problem

The quality of care received during pregnancy and the place of delivery are great determinants of maternal and child morbidity and mortality (United States Agency for International Development (USAID), 2013).Worldwide significant number of women and girls yearly (almost half a million) die as a result of complications during conception, delivery or 6 weeks post childbirth. Majority of these deaths happen in underdeveloped nations (United Nations Millennium Development Goals, 2009). The risk of death from conception and delivery is in Nigeria is 1 in 13, many of these deaths could have been averted with good coverage and quality maternal and child health care (United Nations International Children Fund (UNICEF), 2014).

Increased mothers and newborn death and morbidity has been linked to poor quality of healthcare services (USAID, 2013), and has been evident by increased death rates that inadequate availability of reproductive health services is an important challenge in Nigeria (WHO Nigeria, 2014). Although progress has been made in increasing the coverage of several key reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health interventions over the past two decades, there has been limited progress in improving maternal and paediatric outcomes because of a major gap between coverage and the quality of care provided in health facilities (WHO, UNICEF, 2014).

Also, it has been observed from clinical practice that there are still many cases of preventable pregnancy and delivery complications reporting in the teaching hospital in Ile-Ife on daily bases in spite of many healthcare facilities in the area. Improving the quality of facility-based health care services and making quality an integral component of scaling up interventions to improve health outcomes of mothers, newborns and children is of utmost importance (WHO, 2013).

Hence, the need to evaluate the maternal and child healthcare services in healthcare facilities in Ile-Ife for quality care to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 3 (SDG 3) which is good health and well-being.

1.3   Objective of the Study

The main objective of this study is to evaluate the Quality of Maternal and Child Healthcare Services in selected Healthcare Facilities Ile-Ife utilizing Donabedian model for Quality care

The specific objectives are to:

UTILIZATION OF DONABEDIAN MODEL IN EVALUATION OF MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTHCARE QUALITY SERVICE IN SELECTED HEALTH CARE FACILITIES IN ILE-IFE