UTILIZATION OF HEALTH SERVICE AS CORRELATES OF PREGNANCY OUTCOMES AMONG WOMEN OF ESSIEN UDIM LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF AKWA IBOM STATE

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UTILIZATION OF HEALTH SERVICE AS CORRELATES OF PREGNANCY OUTCOMES AMONG WOMEN OF ESSIEN UDIM LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF AKWA IBOM STATE

ABSTRACT

This study investigated utilization of health services as correlates of pregnancy outcomes among pregnant women in Essien Udim Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Specific objectives were to examine how utilization of health education on nutrition service, immunization service, medical examination service and hospital delivery service influence pregnancy outcomes among pregnant women. Four research questions and four null hypotheses were formulated to guide this study; the descriptive research design was used for studying a population of all the pregnant women and a sample of 96 respondents in the three clans of Essien Udim locality, who was selected through purposive sampling technique.  A researcher-made questionnaire entitled “Utilization of Health Service as Correlates of Pregnancy Outcomes Questionnaire (UHSCPOQ)      was used for data collection.  The percentages were used for analyzing data obtained while the chi-square statistic was used for testing the four null hypotheses formulated. Findings revealed that the calculated (x2) values were greater than critical (x2) value (16.92) at .05 level of significance with 9 degrees of freedom.  The findings also revealed that the four null hypotheses were rejected therefore utilizing health education on nutrition service, immunization service, as medical examination service and hospital delivery service significantly influence pregnancy outcomes among pregnant women in Essien Udim Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Among others, it was recommended that all the pregnant women should deliver babies at health facilities in order to benefit from medical attention at all times and to avoid maternal death.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background

            In Essien Udim Local Government Area as well as other localities in Nigeria, primary health care services are provided. In response to an international conference of World Health Organization in 1978 held in Alma-Ata, where the Heads of States of the whole countries of the world assembled, there was a declaration of the goals of health for all the year 20000 and beyond.  These goals were to be achieved through primary health care services. Such services were to be accessible, affordable, acceptable and reliable to everybody including pregnant women.

Local communities were mostly dependent on traditional medicines for curing and treatment of diseases and wounds during the past twenty years. Pregnant women were dependent on traditional birth attendants for ante-natal, delivery and post-natal care. According to Guerrier, Oluyide, Keramarou and Grais (2013), it was later disvovered that services rendered by traditional birth attendants were substandard, primitive, unhygienic, uncivilized and were contrary to medically approved standards besides, traditional medication had no dosage or measurement based on age and body weight of patient, there was no laboratory procedures and testing of chemicals that contain in the medicine and the expiration date was not determined therefore, it was not possible to determine needs for preservation.  Due to high rate of miscarriage and death among pregnant women during pregnancy and labour, it was necessary for the government to establish primary health facility at local communities throughout Nigeria, including those in Akwa Ibom State.

Pregnant women have been enlightened and sensitized on the importance of utilizing medical services from their nearest health facilities as better alternatives to traditional heath care patterns. Ekpu and Effiong (2010) emphasized that no pregnant women should be deprived from receiving medical attention through antenatal clinics nearest to them because there are a lot of health programmes such as nutrition therapy, health talks, medical tests and safe delivery among others.  Health talks during antenatal clinic keep pregnant women inform about foods rich in nutrients that can help pregnant women, enhance safe delivery and reduce low birth weight and maternal morbidity rates.

Lothian (2009) stated that services rendered by health care facilities are to ensure maternal care and childbirth. Health talks and education inform pregnant women about, safe birth, healthy birth practices, care during labour and postnatal, nutrition education, breastfeeding education, breast examination and immunization at due intervals.  In the last 20th century, advances in medicine have made birth safer for high-risk women and for women with pre-existing medical conditions or serious complications in their current pregnancy.  Increasing evidence shows the routine health talk during antenatal and labour as well as the use of other routine interventions with clear medical interventions has contributed to the dramatic reduction in cesarean rate and other maternal and newborn complications including maternal mortality.

Ekpu and Effiong (2010) remarked that good nutrients do not only protect but promote growth and development, therefore, food is an important subject in the science of human development since every cell, tissue, organ and system in human beings depends on elements of food nutrients to function and survive. Food provides both energy and materials needed to build and maintain all body cells while nutrients are the nourishing substances that must be obtained from food. Food contains six classes of nutrients namely, carbohydrates, fats, and protein as macronutrients, vitamins, minerals and water as the micronutrients.. No particular food can provide all the nutrients at the same time.

UTILIZATION OF HEALTH SERVICE AS CORRELATES OF PREGNANCY OUTCOMES AMONG WOMEN OF ESSIEN UDIM LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF AKWA IBOM STATE

UTILIZATION OF HEALTH SERVICE AS CORRELATES OF PREGNANCY OUTCOMES AMONG WOMEN OF ESSIEN UDIM LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF AKWA IBOM STATE