TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITTLE PAGE i
APPROVAL PAGE ii
CERTIFICATION PAGE iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS vi
LIST OF TABLES ix
LIST OF FIGURES x
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 6
Purpose of the Study 6
Significance of the Study 7
Research Questions 9
Scope of the Study 10
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 11
Conceptual Framework 11
Teaching and Female Teachers 12
Concept of Clothing and Wardrobe Management 13
Theoretical Framework 27
Modesty Theory 27
Adornment or Decoration Theory 28
Expectancy Violation Theory 29
Related Empirical Studies 30
Summary of Reviewed Literature 37
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 39
Design of the Study 39
Area of the Study 39
Population for the Study 40
Sample and Sampling Techniques 40
Instrument for Data Collection 41
Validation of the Instrument 42
Reliability of the Instrument 42
Method of Data Collection 42
Method of Data Analysis 43
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA 44
Research Question 1 44
Research Question 2 46
Research Question 3 48
Research Question 4 50
Research Question 5 52
Research Question 6 54
Hypothesis 1 56
Hypothesis 2 57
Hypothesis 3 59
Hypothesis 4 60
Hypothesis 5 62
Findings of the Study 63
Discussion of Findings 68
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 72
Restatement of the Problem 72
Summary of Procedures Used 73
Summary of Major Findings 74
Implications of the Study 76
Suggestions for Further Studies 78
Appendix A: Request for Validation of Instrument 85
Appendix B: Questionnaire 86
Appendix C: Focus Group Discussion Guide 91
Appendix D: Determination of Reliability of the Instrument 92
Appendix E: Analysis of Mean, Standard Deviation and T-test 95
LIST OF TABLES
- Mean ratings and Standard Deviation of responses of female secondary school teachers in Plateau State on how they plan their wardrobe 44
- Mean ratings and Standard Deviation of responses of female secondary school teachers in Plateau State on how they organize their wardrobe 46
- Mean ratings and Standard Deviation of responses of female secondary school teachers in Plateau State on how they implement their wardrobe 48
- Mean ratings and Standard Deviation of responses of female secondary school teachers in Plateau State on how they evaluate their wardrobe 50
- Mean ratings and Standard Deviation of responses of female secondary school teachers in Plateau State on the challenges they encounter in managing their wardrobe content 52
- Mean ratings and Standard Deviation of responses of female secondary school teachers in Plateau State on the possible solutions to challenges encountered in managing their wardrobe content 54
- T-test Analysis of the Mean Ratings of Rural and Urban Female Secondary School Teachers on wardrobe planning practices 56
- T-test Analysis of the Mean Ratings of Rural and Urban Female Secondary School Teachers on wardrobe organization practices 57
- T-test Analysis of the Mean Ratings of Rural and Urban Female Secondary School Teachers on wardrobe implementation practices 59
- T-test Analysis of the Mean Ratings of Rural and Urban Female Secondary School Teachers on wardrobe evaluation practices 61
- T-test Analysis of the Mean Ratings of Rural and Urban Female Secondary School Teachers on the problems they encounter in wardrobe management 62
List of Figure
Figure 1: Schematic Diagram on wardrobe management of female secondary school teachers in plateau state 26
The major purpose of the study was to investigate wardrobe management practices of female secondary school teachers in Plateau State. Specifically the study determined wardrobe planning practices of female secondary school teachers, ways female secondary school teachers organize their wardrobe content, ways female secondary school teachers implement their wardrobe content, criteria female secondary school teachers evaluate their wardrobe content, challenges encountered by female secondary school teachers in planning their wardrobe content and possible solutions to challenges encountered by female secondary school teachers in their wardrobe management. Six research questions were developed and five null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05level of significance. The study adopted descriptive survey research design and was carried out in Plateau State of Nigeria.The population was 3310 female secondary school teachers in Plateau State with three Senatorial Zones. The sample for this study consisted of a total of 357 female secondary school teachers. The sample size was determined using Yaro-Yamane formula for a finite population. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire and a focus group discussion guide (FGDG) developed by the researcher from literature based on the objectives of the study. The questionnaire was structured on a four-point rating scale of Strongly Agreed (SA), Agreed (A), and Disagreed (D) with numerical values of 4, 3, 2 and 1 respectively. The instrument was subjected to face-validation by three experts from the Department of Vocational Teacher Education (VTE), University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Each validate was served with a copy of the instrument to ascertain the clarity, correctness and suitability of the items of the instrument. The researcher used their corrections, comments, suggestions, and amendments to produce the final copy of the instrument. To establish the reliability of the instrument, a pilot study was conducted. The instrument was trial tested using 20 female secondary school teachers in Abuja which is different from the area of the study. Cronbach Alpha reliability method was used to establish the internal consistency of the instrument and it yielded the overall reliability coefficients of 0.82. The researcher administered and collected the instrument with the help of research assistants. 357 copies of the questionnaire were returned duly completed and formed the basis of analysis FGDG was collected and reported. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions that guided the study while t-test statistic was used to test hypothesis five at 0.05 level of significance. The finding of the study showed among others that, female secondary school teachers in Plateau State plan their wardrobe through identifying their clothing needs, taking inventory of clothes no longer worn and those that need repair, planning for fashion clothes that are responsive to quality time. The finding of the study showed that, female secondary teachers organize, implement and evaluate their wardrobe content. The finding of the study from the test of hypotheses among others showed that urban and rural female secondary school teachers differ significantly in their (p<0.05) opinion on wardrobe planning practices in Plateau State. It was found that respondents from urban and rural female secondary schools teachers did not differ significantly in their (p>0.05) opinion on wardrobe implementation practices in Plateau State. It was recommended among others that Curriculum planners should include dress code for teachers, so that they can be dressing very well to school. Professional bodies like HERAN and HETAN should place more emphasis on dress code to work during conferences seminars and workshops for lecturers, teachers and students of home-economists and Home economics courses should include dress code as a topic in the curriculum.
Background of Study
Clothing is any material for covering human body and it is worn for various reasons which include protection of the body, fashion, adornment and self-esteem. Anyakoha (2015) maintain of that clothing includes clothes, accessories, hairdo, make-up, shoes and others. They further stress that clothing is anything placed on the body to adorn, protect or communicate intents. Anyakoha and Nwadi (2010), further scored or underlined the fact that clothing is an essential part of any human being and should be capable of protecting the body, maintaining modesty and adornment. Igbo (2008) also pointed out that clothing is an important area of personal satisfaction, protection and source of social identification for every right thinking individual.
The primary function of clothing is protection which implies defence of the body. People everywhere put on dress to protect the body from extreme cold and from injury during accidents. Hence clothing is seen as a buffer between people and their environment shielding them from harmful elements both physical and psychological (Anyakoha 2015). Igbo (2013) noted that people wear clothes to protect their bodies from severe climatic condition and injuries. The author further stressed that people who live in temperate regions, like Eskimos use special climatic clothes as major tool to withstand the harsh environmental conditions, clothes are to protect people from intensive heat, rainfall, harmattan and so on.
The use of clothes for protection had many modifications and varies extremely among the people of the world. Protection against the elements of physical hazards as well as against enemies, Balter (2009) noted that clothes are worn to protect the body from physical harms such as thorns, insect bites, sun burn and from job hazards by wearing overalls, space suites and laboratory coats. Psychological security involves the need of clothing for individual powers. The primary function of clothing of early individuals have beliefs in the spiritual forces to cause floods, droughts, superstition, fear of the unseen, belief in evil spirits and demons as well as luck have been responsible for the use of certain garments, jewellery and other body clothing.
Clothing conveys much about a personality. It shows whether a person is responsible, happy or sad. Clothing is a means of expression (Igbo, 2013). The impression or image created about a person’s mode of dressing can either be good or bad, right or wrong but clothing certainly has an impact on a personality hence accountants and lawyers insist on appropriate dressing. Agbo (2008) asserted that clothing and personal appearance do have an effect on success at work or in school. The author added that regardless of one’s professional field of endeavour, clothing remains unchanged and crucial for successful living.
Clothing can be used for various purposes or reasons. Marshal Jackson, Stanley, Kefgen and Touchie 2005 attempted to explain the various motivations or reasons why people wear clothes. The authors stated that clothes are worn among all people for six common reasons; protection, modesty, occupational identity, attraction, social status and traditional identity. Four major theories have been advanced to explain the reasons behind individuals clothing choices and decisions; namely protection, modesty, immodesty and adornment theories. Among all these theories the use of clothing for adornment/aesthetic satisfaction occupies prime place (Marshal, Jackson, Stanley, Kefan and Tochie-Specht 2000). For clothing to be meaningful and serve its purpose, the person involved must engage in adequate planning, proper utilization, appropriate maintenance and evaluation of clothing materials. These conscious activities constitute wardrobe management.
Wardrobe comprises of clothing articles owned/accumulated, used and stored by an individual. Anyakoha, (2015) defined wardrobe as several dressing attires owned by an individual. Ohwvoriote and Ugeru (2002) also consider wardrobe as the total collection of articles of clothing belonging to a person, various individuals and groups. Many factors influence personal wardrobes. Such factors include age, social status, profession among others. Teaching is one of the occupations that should influence wardrobe requirements and maintenance. The wardrobe management of female teachers requires special attention because they need to maintain good personal appearance. Hence, the clothing needs of a female teacher during her service period require careful management in order to have suitable and relevant wardrobe contents. Since wardrobe is important in enhancing individual appearance and personality especially in work place, they need to adopt proper wardrobe management.
Wardrobe management is the systematic planning, organizing, implementing and evaluating wardrobe contents in order to achieve clothing purpose. It involves effective and efficient utilization of available clothing resources to accomplish a goal. Wood (2006) described wardrobe management as the effective and efficient use of available resources of the family in managing clothing. Igbo (2008) further stressed that, it is the transformation of financial resources into clothing utility. Good wardrobe management is achievable with careful planning and correct placement of priorities on available resources (Dead, 2012). Wardrobe management involves efficient ways of meeting individual clothing requirements. The wardrobe management practices of the female secondary school teachers include the various activities the teachers perform as they plan, organize, implement and evaluate clothing acquisition/purchasing, wearing, maintenance and other related operations.
Wardrobe is the process of planning for the clothing need of an individual or the entire family. Wardrobe planning is the correct assemblage of different clothing materials, coordinating clothes properly to meet the need of the hour by an individual (Horn and Gurel, 1993). It involves good choice of clothes based on income, occasion and purpose for which the dressing attires are made. Wardrobe planning is achievable by careful planning and correct placement of priorities as well as available resources (Dead, 2012). It is not necessary to have many or expensive wardrobe to be well dressed. A few clothes carefully chosen can be appropriate for an individual’s various activities (Igbo, 2005). Wardrobe planning is followed by its organizing.
Organizing a wardrobe entails arranging the activities within the wardrobe in a logical and sequential manner. It includes sequencing the activities such as timing of shopping, making decision on clothes to buy, arranging the wardrobe content, and taking good care of clothing items in the wardrobe. All these sequences of activities should be set out for proper implementation in order to achieve predetermined clothing objectives (Rowland, 2012)In this study, wardrobe organization refers to the sequential activities in arranging wardrobe content.
At the implementation stage the planned and arranged activities on clothing are put into action. It involves making judicious use of available clothing in line with functions and weather. Wardrobe implementation is the process of wearing clothes appropriate for different functions or occasions in order to portray good image before the public. It is the stage of selecting wardrobe content that match the situation and wearing them for whatever purpose they are made. According to Boston (2009) a well planned wardrobe is a tool that works with your life style. In this study, wardrobe implementation refers to the actual wearing of clothes or usage of the wardrobe.
The evaluating stage involves the appraisal of the entire wardrobe management process (Anyakoha and Eluwa, 2010). Evaluating wardrobe is the state to determine whether the process of planning, organizing and implementing wardrobe was adequate. According to Igbo, (2005), wardrobe evaluation is an ongoing process and should be done on yearly basis by teachers in secondary schools. A teacher according to Adunfe (2005) is an experienced, well trained and matured person whose job is to impart knowledge, ideas, skills and trainings unto learners in order to influence their character and behaviour. Heaton and Baker (2008) viewed a teacher as one who makes positive differences in the life of many. He stressed further that teachers are people who plant seed that grows forever. So also Duner and Segrin (2012) conceive a teacher as an expert through training and experience, having certain degrees from professional schools or university. Although both male and female teachers dress differently to classrooms, the attention here is given to female ones.
A typical female teacher is expected to combine both official and domestic responsibilities. She discharges official duties like reading, preparing lesson notes and plans, attends classes, gives assignments, sets and administers examinations and gives feedback to students. All these activities are energy sapping and time consuming. Teachers should note that a nice appearance is an investment on them and their career because clothing speaks volumes about the wearer (Schor, 2005).
Teaching profession like every other profession has its ethics of official clothing which teachers are expected to adhere to so as to maintain the level of modesty and professional conduct required. The main actor in teaching profession is the teacher. Appearance of female teacher is very crucial in a learning environment because many students are modelled through her character, experience and dressing pattern, (Hadeen, 2010). Although most female secondary school teachers in Plateau State accumulate and build wardrobe of clothing, they fail to achieve the desired objectives solely because they are lacking in the required and sufficient knowledge and skills of wardrobe management (Biecher, Keaton and pollman 2012). The primary objective of this study is to investigate the wardrobe management practices of female secondary school teachers in Plateau State in order to enhance such practices.
Statement of Problem