WATER POLLUTION, EFFECTS, PREVENTION AND CLIMATE IMPACT IN NIGERIA

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Water pollution is a serious world problem which requires a proper evaluation and revision of water resource policy at various levels
(international down to individual aquifers and wells). It has been recommended that it is the major global cause of deaths and diseases and
that it accounts for the deaths of more than 14,000 people daily (West, 2010; Pink, 2010). Water is necessary to the existence of all living
organisms, but this valued resource is highly being threatened as human populations increase and demand more water of high quality for
domestic purposes and economic activities [UNEPGEMS, 2012]. The significance of water to human and other biological systems cannot be
over emphasized, and there are numerous scientific and economic facts that, water shortage or its pollution can lead to serious decrease in
productivity and deaths of living things (Garba et al., 2012; 2010). Neat and enough quantity of water provide the basis for prosperous
communities. We base on neat water to survive, yet as it is now we are moving towards a water crisis. Over the last years, in many African
countries a considerable population growth has taken place, accompanied by a steep increase in urbanization, industrial and agricultural
land use. This has necessitated a tremendous rise in disposal of a large diversity of pollutants to receiving water bodies and has caused
undesirable effects on the different components of the aquatic environment and on fisheries [Saad et al., 2011]. Due to that, there is rapid
appreciation that globally the management and utilization of water resources need to be enhanced and that the volume of waste and
pollution generated by human activity need to be minimized on a large scale. The quality of any body of surface or ground water is a
function of either or both natural influences and human activities [Stark et al., 2009; Kolawole et al., 2012]. It is now generally agreed that
aquatic environments cannot be deemed simply as holding tanks that supply water for human activities. Rather, these environments are
complex matrices that require conscious use to ensure sustainable ecosystem functioning well into the future [UNEPGEMS, 2012]. The
common sources of water that are made available to various communities in Nigeria are speedily being severed by a number of
anthropogenic factors, of which pollution remain the most prevailing problem Galadima et al.(2011). Water pollution takes place when
unwanted materials with capacity to threaten human and other natural Eco systems find their ways into rivers, lakes, wells, streams,
boreholes or even reserved fresh water in homes and industries. Water pollution is the release of foul water from commercial and industrial
waste into surface waters; release of untreated domestic sewage, and chemical contaminants, such as chlorine, from treated sewage;
discharge of waste and contaminants into surface runo flowing to surface waters (including urban runo and agricultural runo, which
may contain chemical fertilizers and pesticides); waste disposal and leaching into groundwater; eutrophication and littering. Rivers are the
most vital freshwater resource for human beings. Sadly, waters are being contaminated by incessant discharge of sewerage, industrial waste
and series of human activities, which affects their physico-chemical features and microbiological component [Kosh and Nayar, 2013].
Increasing numbers and volume of industrial, commercial chemicals and agricultural disposal into the aquatic system have led to various
deleterious effects on aquatic bodies. Aquatic animals accumulate pollutants directly from polluted water and indirectly via the food chain
[Hammer, 2015; Mohammed, 2009]. The pollutants are mainly pathogens, soils, sewage materials, disposed foods, cosmetics, automobile
emissions, construction debris and eroded banks from rivers and other waterways (Galadima et al., 2011). Owing to the large quantity of
effluent discharged to the receiving waters, the natural processes of pathogen reduction are inadequate for protection of public health.
According to Gerardi & Zimmarman, 2011 industrial wastes that interfere with the water pH and produce excessive bacterial components
often hinder the ability of natural processes to inactivate and destroy pathogens. The level of release of domestic and industrial effluents is
such that rivers obtaining untreated effluent cannot provide the dilution vital for their survival as good quality water sources.

The movement of unfavorable releases from industries is detrimental to climate change [Adekunle & Eniola, 2012]. Discharge of sewage wastes
into a large volume of water could increase the biological oxygen demands to such a high level that all the available oxygen may be taken
away. In Nigeria today research indicates that, majority of the common fresh water sources are polluted, resulting to serious climate impact.
According to Kolawole et al. (2011) prevention of water pollution requires effective supervision of physico-chemical and microbiological
parameters. The major risks to human health related with the consumption of contaminated water are microbiological in nature [WHO,
2014].The bacteriological examination of water has a special significance in pollution studies, as it is a direct measurement of deleterious
effect of pollution on human health [APHA, 2012]. Eluent discharge practices in Nigeria are yet too crude and society is in danger,
especially in the industrialized part of the cities. The Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) established to check these
environmental abuses has had little or no impact on climate [Ezeronye & Amogu, 2009]. Therefore the study examines water pollution;
effects, prevention and climate impact in Nigeria.

WATER POLLUTION, EFFECTS, PREVENTION AND CLIMATE IMPACT IN NIGERIA