EDIBLE SEAWEED, LASIMORPHA SENEGALENSIS SCHOTT COLLECTED FROM UTA-EWA CREEK OF IMO-RIVER, IKOT ABASI, AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT
Effect of heavy metals pollution in edible seaweed lasimorpha senegalensis Schott collected from Uta Ewa Creek of Imo River was investigated. The study show that sea plant has highest accumulation of Iron, Zinc and Cadmium at 1.758mg/kg, 2.583mg/kg and 0.765mg/kg respectively as compared to water and sediment while sediment had the highest accumulation of Manganese at 2.45mg/kg as compared to water and sea plant. The concentrations at the heavy metals Iron, Zinc and Manganese were however above the permissible limits by the Department of Petroleum Resources and Federal Ministry of Environment. These studies have therefore revealed that sea plant and sediment collected from Uta Ewa Creek have high accumulation of heavy metals which could be attributed to anthropogenic activities; therefore, the Creek should be monitored on regular bases to avoid pollution.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page…………………………………………………………………………………..i
Certification ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgement iv
Abstract v
Table of Content vi
List of Table viii
CHAPTER ONE 1
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background of the Study Area 2
1.2 Problem Statement 2
1.3 Objective of the Study: 3
1.4 Justification of the Study: 3
CHAPTER TWO 5
2.0 Literature Review: 5
2.1 Heavy Metals 5
2.2 Sources of Heavy Metals in the Environment 6
2.3 Effect of Heavy Metals on Seaweeds: 8
2.4 Accumulaion of heavy metals in seaweeds 10
2.5 Seaweeds as biomonitor of heavy metals; 12
2.6 Sediments as biomonitor of havy metals: 15
2.7 Uses of seaweed: 16
2.8 Effect of heavy metals in drinking water in relation to human health: 19
CHAPTER THREE 22
3.0 Material and methods 22
3.1 Samples collection: 22
3.1.1 Edible Seaplant (lasimorpha senegalensis schott) 22
3.1.2 Water 22
3.1.3 Sediment 22
3.2 Analysis of seaplant (lasimorpha senegalensis schott) 23
3.3 Analysis of water sample: 23
3.4 analysis of sediment samples: 23
CHAPTER FOUR 24
4.1 Result 24
4.2 Discussion 26
CHAPTER FIVE 30
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation 30
5.1 Conclusion/Recommendation 30
References 31
LIST OF TABLE
Table 1: heavy metals concentration in samples collected from Uta-Ewa
Creek and permissible limit…………………………………………….

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION
Industrialization, urbanization, agricultural practices and increased population have led to imbalance of various extrinsic and intrinsic elements of different types of pollution in water (Gupta et al., 2009). Over the last few decades, there has been growing interest in determining heavy metals level in the marine environment and attention was drawn to the measurement of contamination levels in public food supplied, particularly fish (Kalayet; et al., 2005). They derived their nutrients mainly from the sea weeds.
The anthropogenic contamination of marine ecosystems is a very important stress factor and defines the necessity for systematic monitoring and control of contaminants like heavy metals that affect marine biota (Ali et al., 2011). Habitant destruction, as a consequence of reckless industrial development and release of toxic anthropogenic pollutants is the most serious contemporary challenge to survival of biological systems on earth, severe pollution threatens Aquatic ecosystems which continue to receive large volumes of industrial waste, without adequate treatment facilities to protect flora and fauna. Metals well known for their persistence in the environment and their ability to bioaccumulation and bio magnifications in the food chain (Gochfeld, 2003), are often responsible for irreparable damage to the marine environments.

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY AREA
Uta-Ewa Creek is a tributary of Imo-River that used to receive effluent from Aluminum Smelter Company (ALSCON) in Ikot Abasi, Akwa Ibom State, that is located a distance of four miles from the creek. Ikot Abasi is one of the Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State located in the coastal area of Niger Delta region of Nigeria. It has a climate that can be differentiated into two seasons; the dry and wet season. The main occupations of the populace are fishing and farming and the area is a semi-rural community in which the inhabitants depend on rain and surface water as the only source of drinking and for domestic purposes.

1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
Uta-Ewa Creek is a semi-rural community populated mostly with middle class citizens which depends on the seaweed (lasimorpha senegalensis Schott) as their only source of vegetable especially in the dry season where there is shortest of vegetables. The effluent from aluminum smelter plant and domestic waste water from housing Estates in Ikot Abasi are discharged into the creek which can cause human health problem to the populaces in this area and its environs.

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY:
The main objective of this study is to determine the effect of heavy metals pollution in a edible sea weed (lasimorpha senegalensis Schott) .
The specific objectives are to determine the level of heavy metals concentration in water, and sediments collected from Uta-Ewa Creek of Imo River.
To determine the Bioaccumulation and bio magnification of heavy metals in the lasimorpha senegalensis Schott and to
Recommend the findings to the consumers.

1.4 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY:
Among pollutants, heavy metals create serious threat to biosphere due to their property of bioaccumulation and biomagnifications in different tropic levels of ecosystem (Salunk et al., 2001). Accumulation of heavy metals in aquatic environment occurs mainly by two sources; through natural sources like weathering of rocks and erosion and also through anthropogenic activities. Among these two sources, the anthropogenic activities is the prime source of aquatic pollution that affect the ecosystem and eventually to human being through food chain. As these heavy metals cannot be degraded, they are deposited, assimilated in aquatic plants, sediments, water and other aquatic organisms (Linnik and Zubenk; 2009: Malik et al., 2010) thus, contaminating the water bodies. Therefore, heavy metals in aquatic ecosystem can be biomagnified and can cause toxicity to aquatic fauna and flora through food chain and finally assimilated by human beings who are the final consumer resulting in health hazard (Ajah et al., 2009).

EDIBLE SEAWEED, LASIMORPHA SENEGALENSIS SCHOTT COLLECTED FROM UTA-EWA CREEK OF IMO-RIVER, IKOT ABASI, AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA